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Purpose: To characterize associated reactions (ARs) in the contralateral arm across multiple muscles during unimanual tasksand to identify factors related to ARs in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 35 children with CP. The extent of ARs of the contra-lateral,non-task hand was assessed while performing three unimanual tasks (opening and clenching the fist, a finger oppositiontask, and tapping fingers). The occurrence of ARs in each trial was evaluated separately for each task using a four-point scale (totalscores ranged from 0 to 12). Surface electromyography (SEMG) was used to measure the firing activity of the muscles of the oppositearm during the task. The Manual Ability Classification System and Melbourne Assessment 2 (MA-2) were used to evaluateupper limb function. Results: AR scores were higher in the more-affected limb than in the less-affected limb. SEMG data on the non-task hand showedmotor overflow up to the elbow muscles in the more-affected limb. Root mean square ratios of EMG signals were significantly higherin children with ARs than in children without ARs. Multiple regression analysis showed both age and MA-2 to be significant factorsrelated to ARs in the more-affected limb. Conclusion: Children with visible ARs showed motor overflow in the non-task limb during unimanual hand tasks. Age and upperlimb function were significantly related to the extent of ARs in the more-affected limb of children with CP.
It is a well known that concrete is strong for compression and weak for tension. For reinforcing the weakness and improving the performance about concrete, various methods are used. Fiber reinforced concrete that is one of them has been investigated in this study. The function of fiber in concrete is to improve the stress strain relation and toughness, crack control. It’s applied from normal strength concrete to ultra-high performance concrete. But it is essential to disperse fiber uniformly and to prevent aggregation of fiber in concrete, in order that fiber reinforced concrete show the sufficient performance. The various properties of fiber affect the essential properties, for instance, length and diameter of fiber, source, etc. So, this study evaluated the ultra-high performance concrete with mixed in composite fiber.