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        • KCI등재

          불산 누출사고에 따른 지역사회 구성원들의 노출평가

          김순신,우극현,윤성용,임현술,김근배,유승도,조용성,이석용,이현수,양원호,Kim, Sunshin,Woo, Kuck-Hyeun,Yoon, Seong-Yong,Lim, Hyun-Sul,Kim, Geun-Bae,Yu, Seung-Do,Cho, Yong-Sung,Lee, Seokyong,Lee, Hyunsu,Yang, Wonho 한국환경보건학회 2015 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.41 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Objectives: The purpose of this study was to propose an indirect exposure assessment method using a questionnaire survey at a time when direct exposure assessment would be impossible after a chemical accident. Methods: About two weeks after an accident, a questionnaire survey was performed with 1,264 persons from the local community. Variables related to exposure were extracted from the survey contents, weighted and then graded for comparison with subjective symptoms in order to evaluate the extent of exposure. Survey items suitable for reflecting the previous exposure level during the accident were extracted, weighted and divided into quartile ranges. Subjective symptoms showed an increasing tendency with higher exposure level when compared with final exposure level (p<0.01). Results: For the relationship between the final exposure grade and subjective symptoms, as the exposure grade was increasing the rates complaining of symptom also showed an increasing tendency. However, when adjusted for demographic characteristics, there was a tendency for the eye irritation symptom to appear higher in women, and respiratory organ irritation appeared higher in smokers. Conclusions: When the problem of recall bias is considered, this study may not have completely unraveled exposure and the characteristics of the participants can affect subjective symptoms. Nevertheless, the exposure rating method of using a questionnaire showed a significant relationship with symptom level. It can be deemed that assessment of past exposure may be successfully evaluated by questionnaire in cases such as chemical accidents.

        • KCI우수등재

          산업단지 및 일반생활 지역의 공기 중 톨루엔에 대한 개인노출 및 생체시료의 상관성 분석

          이병준(Byoungjun Lee),허 정(Jung Heo),정다영(Dayoung Jung),김순신(Sunshin Kim),류현수(Hyeon-Su Ryu),최민지(Min-Ji Choi),솨이지엔페이(Jian-Fei Shuai),임성국(Sung-Guk Im),양원호(Wonho Yang) 한국환경보건학회 2017 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.43 No.4

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation relationship between personal exposure and urinary hippuric acid in biological monitoring for airborne toluene in an industrial complex and in general environments. Methods: Personal exposure to toluene and its metabolite, hippuric acid, in urine were simultaneously measured in occupational environments area near an industrial complex and in general environments. The study subjects were divided into three types: 137 workers who use organic solvents in the workplace, 210 residents living near a dyeing industrial complex, and 379 residents living in general environments. The toluene exposures of workers and residents were measured by a passive sampler for four days. The urine of participants was sampled when the passive samplers of personal exposure were collected. Results: The toluene and hippuric acid concentrations of workers were the highest, followed by the concentrations of residents living near a dyeing industrial complex and residents living in general environments. The coefficient of correlation between the concentrations of toluene and hippuric acid among workers was 0.749 (p<0.01) in the workplace. On the contrary, correlations between the concentrations of toluene and hippuric acid among residents living near a dyeing industrial complex and residents living in general environments were all not significant. The relationship between the concentrations of hippuric acid and toluene in three types could be described by the exponential growth model. Conclusions: This study analyzed the relationships between toluene exposure and the concentrations of hippuric acid in urine in high, middle, and low exposure environments, and could be described by the exponential growth model.

        • KCI등재

          대학가 주변 원룸의 라돈(radon) 농도 평가

          이석용,이영무,박지현,김순신,홍가연,안호기,양원호,Lee, Seokyong,Lee, Youngmoo,Park, Jihyun,Kim, Sunshin,Hong, Gayeon,Ahn, Hogi,Yang, Wonho 한국환경보건학회 2013 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.39 No.2

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Objective: Building materials can generate radon in indoor environments. This study aims to assess the radon concentrations of studio apartments around a university. Methods: 25 studio apartments around a University in Gyoungsan, Korea were measured for concentrations of radon. We evaluated the radon concentrations by using short-term continuous radon monitors at the studio apartments around the university, and analyzed the correlation between indoor radon concentration and factors affecting it, such as year of construction. Results: The average concentration of radon was 2.03 pCi/L(75.11 $Bq/m^3$)${\pm}1.34$ in the studio apartments. This radon level was lower than the radon standard for public use facilities in Korea and US EPA's standard of 4 pCi/L. However the measured radon levels were much higher than those previously reported in conventional dwellings. There was a statistically correlation between year of construction and radon concentrations in studio apartment buildings. Conclusion: It is suggested that recently built studio apartments might be constructed with phosphogypsum board that features higher radon emissions, and occupants are highly exposed to radon.

        • KCI우수등재

          화학사고 시 수용체 보호를 위한 독성끝점 농도와 급성독성 자료를 활용한 우려농도 예측값 조사

          이지윤(Jiyun Lee),김순신(Sunshin Kim),양원호(Wonho Yang),윤준헌(Junheon Yoon),류지성(Jisung Ryu),김정곤(Jungkon Kim),지경희(Kyunghee Ji) 한국환경보건학회 2018 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.44 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Objectives: To protect individuals working at the site as well as the surrounding general population from a chemical accident, several emergency exposure guidance levels have been used to set alevel of concern for certain chemicals. However, a level of concern has not been established for many substances that are frequently used or produced in large quantities in Korean workplaces. In the present study, we investigated the guidance levels for protecting populations from chemical exposure and the estimation of level of concern using acute inhalation and oral toxicity data. Methods: The number of chemicals to which emergency exposure guidance levels (e.g., ERPG-2, AEGL-2, PAC-2, and IDLH) can be applied were determined among 822 hazardous chemicals according to the ‘Technical Guidelines for the Selection of Accident Scenarios (revised December 2016)’. The ERPG and AEGL values were compared across all three tiers for the 31 substances that appeared on both lists. We examined the degree of difference between the emergency exposure guidance levels and the estimates of level of concern calculated from acute inhalation or acute oral toxicity data. Results: Among the 822 hazardous chemicals, emergency exposure guidance levels can be applied to 359 substances, suggesting that the estimates of level of concern should be calculated using acute toxicity data for 56.3% of the hazardous chemicals. When comparing the concordance rates of ERPG and AEGL for 31 substances, the difference between the two criteria was generally small. However, about 40% of the substances have values diverging by more than three-fold in at least one tier. Such discrepancies may cause interpretation and communication problems in risk management. The emergency exposure guidance levels were similar to the estimates of level of concern calculated using acute inhalation toxicity data, but the differences were significant when using acute oral toxicity data. These results indicate that the level of concern derived from acute oral toxicity data may be insufficient to protect the population in some cases.Conclusion: Our study suggests that the development of standardized guidance values for emergency chemical exposure in the Korean population should be encouraged. It is also necessary to analyze acute toxicity data and fill the information gaps for substances that are important in Korean workplace situations.

        • KCI우수등재

          한국 학생들의 시간활동 양상 평가

          류현수(Hyeonsu Ryu),윤효정(Hyojung Yoon),엄익춘(Igchun Eom),박진현(Jinhyeon Park),김순신(Sunshin Kim),조만수( Mansu Cho),양원호(Wonho Yang) 한국환경보건학회 2018 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.44 No.2

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Objectives: The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for air pollutant exposure modelling and understanding the contribution of respective microenvironments by assessing the time-activity patterns of Korean students according to variables such as grade, sex, weekday, and weekend. Methods: In this study, we compared the residential time of 521 (both weekday and weekend) lower elementary students, 1,735 (1,054 on weekdays, 681 on weekends) upper elementary students, 2,210 (1,294 on weekdays, 916 on weekends) middle school students, and 2,366 (1,387 on weekdays, 979 on weekends) high school students in different microenvironments according to grade, sex, weekday, and weekend. We used data from the 2014 Time-Use Survey by the Korean National Statistical Office for upper elementary students through high school students, and surveyed time-activity patterns of 521 lower elementary students aged 7-9 years. Each microenvironment was divided into indoor, outdoor, and transport. Indoor environments were divided into home, school, and other places. In addition, the results of previous studies were compared to this study. Results: Weekday time-activity patterns of Korean students indicated that lower elementary students spent 16.02±2.53 hr in the home and 5.37±2.32 hr in school. Upper elementary students spent 14.11±1.79 hr in the home and 6.27±1.37hr in school. Middle school students spent 12.83±2.22 hr in the home and 7.48±1.88 hr in school. High school students spent 10.65±2.86 hr in the home and 10.23±2.86 hr in school on weekdays. High school students spent the least amount of time in the home and the most time in school compared to other grades Conclusions: Students spent most of their time indoors, including in the home, school, and other indoors. On weekdays, as the grade increases, home residential times were decreased and school residential times were increased. Differences in time-activity patterns according to sex were not found for either weekdays or weekends. It is estimated that Korean students could be affected by school indoor air quality. High school students could be most affected by school indoor air quality since they spent the most time at school.

        • KCI우수등재

          어린이들의 비의도적 행위에 대한 노출계수 개발 및 영향요인 분석

          정다영(),윤효정(Hyojung Yoon),양원호(Wonho Yang),김탁수(Taksoo Kim),서정관(JungKwan Seo),허정(Jung Heo),류현수(Hyunsoo Ryu),김순신(Sunshin Kim),최민지(Min-Ji Choi) 한국환경보건학회 2017 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.43 No.5

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop exposure factor data for the Korean child population, with a specific focus on behavior characteristics such as hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth and an analysis of influential factors. Methods: We divided environments into two places, which were house/indoor and nursery. A total of 400 children (house/indoor) and a total of 162 children (nursery) were recruited from the cities of Seoul, Incheon, Daegu, and Gwangju. The children were divided into two groups. We conducted direct measurement by using one hour of videotaping alongside questionnaire surveys. This was performed to calculate behavior rates, such as how many children perform hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth behaviors. Results: The respective average frequencies of hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth were 0.8±2.23 and 0.82±2.64 contacts/hr for house/indoor. The respective average frequencies of hand-to-mouth and object-tomouth were 2.87±4.63 and 1.47±3.84 contacts/hr in the nursery group. For the mouthing participants, the average frequencies of hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth were 3.31 and 3.20 contacts/hr in house, and 4.80 and 3.26 in nursery. Compared to other countries such as the USA, the frequencies of hand-to-mouth and object-tomouth behaviors found in this study were relatively lower. Conclusions: Children have the potential for exposure to toxic substances through non-dietary ingestion pathways by mouthing objects or their fingers. In this study, the mouthing frequency was relatively lower than that found in Western countries. This can be explained that mouthing behaviour may be affected by culture and lifestyle characteristics.

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