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This study surveys Japanese language students from a Korean university, alumni of the same university gathering in a Japanese-Korean translation circle and native English speakers residing in Japan on the influence of the respective mother tongue in the acquisition of Japanese verbs composed of two Chinese characters (Kanji) and the verb “to do” (suru-verb). The results of the survey show a measurable influence of the mother tongue in Korean learners. But it has been observed that on subjects where Japanese and English voices overlap and Korean learners often make mistakes, the rate of mistakes in English learners was equally high. Therefore, even in subjects where the assumed reason for mistakes was language transfer and as such has been widely regarded as the “influence of the Korean mother tongue”, I suggest that there is more to this than solely the influence of the mother tongue.
본고에서는「위쪽으로 이동하다」라는 공통의미를 가진 일본어동사「あがる」와「のぼる」를 연구대상으로 다양한 예문분석을 통하여 그 의미용법의 공통점과 차이점을 고찰해 보았다. 분석 결과,「あがる」에는「위쪽으로 이동하다」「사람들의 눈에 띄는 곳에 나가다」라는 의미를 가지고, 기점에서 벗어난 결과의 상태, 도달점에 초점을 맞춘다. 도달점에 초점을 맞추기 때문에 이동의 완료라고도 할 수 있으므로「일이 완료되다」라는 의미가 있다. 전체적인 이동과 부분적인 이동에도, 의지적인 이동과 무의지적인 현상에도, 타인의 힘이나 의지에 의한 이동에도 쓰인다.「のぼる」는「위쪽으로 이동하다」「사람들의 눈에 띄는 곳에 나가다」라는 의미로 과정ㆍ경로에 초점을 맞춘다. 전체적인 이동, 의지적인 이동 이외에 무의지적인 현상에도 사용된다. 「위쪽으로 이동하다」의 경우, 전체적?의지적인 이동에서는「あがる」와「のぼる」를 모두 사용할 수 있는데, 그 차이는 초점이 도달점에 있는지, 과정ㆍ경로에 있는지에 의한다. 또한, 예문을 보면「階段」「?軍」「食卓」「マウンド(마운드)」「話題」등은「あがる」와「のぼる」양쪽 모두와 사용하고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 그 의미의 차이 역시 선행연구와 마찬가지로 초점이 도달점에 있는지, 과정ㆍ경로에 있는지에 의한다. 특히 본고에서는「食卓にのぼる」와「マウンドにのぼる」의 경우에는「음식」과 특별한 경우에 등장하는「사람」에 초점을 두고 있음을 밝혔다. 또한,「あがる」에는「기준점에서 벗어나다」「모래먼지 등이 발생하다」「증거나 이름 등이 드러나다」「일이 완료되다」라는「のぼる」에는 없는 의미도 있음을 알았다.
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disease with a distinctive dysmorphic face, intellectual disability,and multiple congenital abnormalities. KS is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. As the primary cause of KS, MLL2 mutations have been identified in 56–76% of affected individuals who have been tested,suggesting that there may be additional genes associated with KS. Recently, a few KS individuals have been found to have de novo partial or complete deletions of an X chromosome gene, KDM6A , which encodes a histone demethylase that interacts with MLL2 . Nevertheless, mutations in MLL2 are the major cause of KS. Although there are a few reports of KS patients in Korea, none of these had been confirmed by genetic analysis. Here, we report a case of a Korean patient with clinical features of KS. Using direct sequencing,we identified a frameshift heterozygous mutation for MLL2 : (c.5256_5257delGA;p.Lys1753Alafs*34). Clinically, the patient presented with typical facial features, and diagnosis of KS was based on the diagnostic criteria. While KS is a rare disease, other malformations that overlap with those found in individuals with KS are common. Hence, the diagnosis of KS by mutational analysis can be a valuable method for patients with KS-like syndromes. Furthermore, in the near future, other genes could be identified in patients with KS without a detectable MLL2 mutation.
This study focuses on NP2 of Korean noun phrase ‘NP2 of NP1', based on the reseach by Kim・Terai(2016), a study of temporal relativity between NP1 and types of NP2 of Japanese noun phrase ‘NP2 of NP1' with the clause structure. As in Japanese, it is also seen in Korean that NP2 has types such as a Chinese noun, a Korean proper noun, a derived noun or an adopted word. But differences are found when the phrases are interpreted. Roughly, there are two ways to translate. One is when the phrase is translated into ‘to do ~' - Chinese noun, adopted word- ,the other is when translated by restoring to the original verb –derived noun-. Derived nouns of Japanese can be translated in the both ways, whereas Korean derived nouns cannot be translated by ‘to do~' but only by restoring to the original verb. It is confirmed that NP2 with the characteristic of verb can be translated, as in Japanese, through a semantic interpretation of the relativity with NP1 ,as for “movement”, “condition”, “existence” and “relation” in the perspective of temporal localization.
As one of the Korean collections held in Honolulu Academy of Arts, the Screen of Cranes and peaches had been completed a preservation and restoration funded by the National Research Institute for Cultural Heritage in Korea 2006. This essay explores the art historical identity of the Screen of Cranes and peaches including the issues of the artists, the nationality, and the contexts of production. The work was originally one twelve panels screen, which was remounted as two six panel screens. The main motives, cranes and peaches have been considered as the representative symbols of longevity called Sipjangseng 十長生 in East Asia. Therefore, the paintings may have been made to commemorate the birthday celebration of a prominent member of the imperial family. As a decisive evidence, the screen has an inscription which says '?僊拱壽壬寅夏題' on the rock at the first panel. It denotes that the screen was designed to make wishes for the health and longevity of the senior host. Also, if we scrutinize the time, '壬寅 imin', it seems to be true that the Screen of Cranes and peaches, datable to 1902, was taken by liege who prepared to hold the celebration for the Ko-jong Emperor's 51th birthday. In the context of Korean court, it is remarkable that it is year 1902 when Ko-iong entered Kiloso (耆老所, membership of honorable seniors), the same year 40th anniversary inauguration. In 1897, Ko-jong reformed the structure of government and changed the name of his nation from Joseon dynasty (1392-1897) to the Great Han Empire (1897-1910), and launched a large number of new projects in order to enhance national capacity and status in the international community. Since the birthday of Ko-jong was established as a national holiday called Hwangsuseongjeol (皇壽聖節, commemoration of the emperor's birthday) 1897, the 51th birthday celebration was held on August 28th, 1902 on the Gregorian Calender. Therefore, ‘iminha (壬寅夏, summer in 1902)' in the record seems to indicate this period. The screen is likely to be the largest as well as the most opulent painting to have survived from the Korean court. While the Screen of Cranes and peaches succeeded the tradition of Joseon court painting in terms of the mounting, brush works, and iconography, it also presents an exceptional element of covering the whole background with golden-foil. The method of treating gold foil related to Japanese tradition explains the circumstance of the period that Korean imperial artistic currents were influenced by Japanese court-patronized style. The characteristics of the screen share affinities with works depicting cranes and peaches by Japanese artists such as Taki Katei(瀧和亭, 1830-1901), Ohashi Bishu(大橋美州, ?-?), Mashizu Shunnan(益頭峻南, 1851-1916), and so forth who participated in producing art works for both the court of Joseon dynasty and the Great Han Empire. The fact that the Japanese artists' works were left in Korean palaces also shows the possibility which the Screen of Cranes and peaches was completed by influence of Japanese art tradition currents or by collaboration with Korean and Japanese painters. However, the ham-handed way in which the golden foil is ornamented demonstrates the main artisan was not most likely to be the best Japanese court-patronized artist. This denotes that the screen was completed by the artists of the Great Han Empire court by accepting Japanese methods. The fact that Ko-jong administrated overall affairs under the slogan of 'gubonsincham' (舊本新參, reviewing the old and learning the new/focusing the old and referencing the new) might have represented that the Screen of Cranes and peaches depicted the eclectic visuality originated from both internal and external currents. Ko-jong's aspiration toward independent modern nation has helped to flourish royal art works and generate imperial style. The exceptional ornaments and gigantic scale of the screen symbolize the representative arts of the Great Han Empire, accepting the innovative style and ostentatiou