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This study implemented English listening tests using two different activities in order to determine the differences between the tests and to identify students' English listening skills. This analysis was conducted to examine the use of English listening tests using dictogloss and dictation. Moreover, the study's purpose was to uncover the differences between these two activities, in terms of students' achievement levels and improvement in their listening skills. The study's participants were 75 seventh-graders from three different classes in a middle school in Seoul, Korea. Participants were divided into groups: an experimental group, which participated in dictogloss activities, and two comparison groups, which participated in dictation activities. Additionally, a total of 10 high-and low-level boys and girls from each group were interviewed. Quantitative data was obtained through pre- and post-English proficiency tests. The data was analyzed using the paired samples t-test and independent samples t-test and the study used grounded-theory to analyze the students' work. The results revealed that the comparison groups exhibited more significant effects than the experimental group. Several important themes emerged from the study's textual analysis including self-directed learning, peer learning, enjoyment, and self-evaluation. This study found that dictogloss activities had no significant effects on high-proficiency students but significant positive effects on low-proficiency students. In conclusion, the study's findings suggest that in teaching English listening, teachers must make greater use of dictogloss activities. More specifically, teachers are advised to perform these activities at different levels and with different examples for each group. These activities are a useful method for first-grade students if teachers are well-prepared.
In this study, the author observed the fungal characteristics of T. verrucosum which is commonly known as the cattle ringworm fungus in the farms of Hoengseong, Gangwon-do. After isolating 20 strains of T. verrucosum from cattle, they were cultured on SDA, PDA media and the fungal characteristics were concluded through visual observation of the colonies, microscopic findings, hair perforation test and urease test. The size of the colonies cultured on SDA media at 37 C was on an average 5 mm at 1 week, 33 mm at 2 weeks, 42 mm at 3 weeks and 58 mm after 4 weeks. Observing the characteristics of the colonies, 17 strains of T. album showing central bold radial folds, 2 strains of T. ochraceum having l throughout the colonies and 1 strain of T. discoides with rapid growth rate and gray-white cotton patterns were found. On microscopic observations of the cultured colonies on SDA, PDA media, macroconidia and microconidia were not found in T. verrucosum and hyphae and chlamydospore were only seen in T. album types. Out of 20 strains of T. verrucosum, hair perforation test was positive on only 3 strains and urease test was positive on all of the 20 strains.
In last 30 years, mathematical tangle theory is applied to molecular biology, especially to DNA topology. The recent issues and research results of this topic are reviewed in this paper. We introduce a tangle which models an enzyme-DNA complex . The studies of 2-string tangle equations related to Topoisomerase II action and site-specific recombination is discussed. And 3-string tangle analysis of Mu-DNA complex, n-string tangle analysis (n ≥ 4) of DNA-enzyme synaptic complexes are also discussed.