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      • KCI등재

        리튬이온전지 양극활물질 Ni-rich NCM의 합성과 전기화학적 특성

        김수연,최승현,이은주,김점수,Kim, Soo Yeon,Choi, Seung-Hyun,Lee, Eun Joo,Kim, Jeom-Soo 한국전기화학회 2017 한국전기화학회지 Vol.20 No.4

        층상구조의 Ni-rich NCM계 양극활물질 $Li[Ni_xCo_{(1-x)/2}Mn_{(1-x)/2}]O_2$ ($x{\geq}0.6$)은 $LiCoO_2$ 대비 높은 에너지밀도와 가격 경쟁력의 장점을 가진다. Ni 함량에 비례하여 가역 방전용량이 증가하는 장점이 있는 반면, 합성 중에 발생하는 양이온 혼합으로 인해 안정적인 전기화학성능을 구현하기 어려운 문제가 있다. 본 연구에서는 합성 분위기, 리튬 원료물질, 합성 시간, 합성 온도, Li/M (M=transition metal) 비율 등의 다양한 합성조건을 변수로 하여 Ni 함량 증가에 따라 최적의 층상구조 Ni-rich NCM을 각각 합성하고 이에 대한 전기화학성능을 보고하였다. $Li[Ni_{0.6}Co_{0.2}Mn_{0.2}]O_2$ (NCM6)을 기준으로 Ni 함량이 증가한 $Li[Ni_{0.7}Co_{0.15}Mn_{0.15}]O_2$ (NCM7)와 $Li[Ni_{0.8}Co_{0.1}Mn_{0.1}]O_2$ (NCM8)의 합성시 전이금속 중 Ni의 비율이 증가함에 따라 양이온 혼합이 증가하는 것이 관찰되었고, 이는 전기화학 성능에 부정적인 영향을 끼치는 것으로 확인되었다. Ni 비율별 NCM에 대한 연구결과 비율 내확인한 최적의 조건에서 NCM6은 $180mAh{\cdot}g^{-1}$, 96.2% (50회), NCM7은 $187mAh{\cdot}g^{-1}$, 94.7% (50회), NCM8은 $201mAh{\cdot}g^{-1}$, 92.7% (50회)의 초기 방전용량 및 수명평가 후 용량유지율 값을 각각 구현하였다. Layered Ni-rich NCM cathode materials $Li[Ni_xCo_{(1-x)/2}Mn_{(1-x)/2}]O_2$ ($x{\geq}0.6$) have advantages of high energy density and cost competitive over $LiCoO_2$. The discharge capacity of NCM increases proportionally to the Ni contents. However, there is a problem that it is difficult to realize the stable electrochemical performance due to cation mixing. In this study, synthesis conditions for the layered Ni-rich NCMs are investigated to achieve deliver the ones having good electrochemical performances. Synthesis parameters are atmosphere, lithium source, synthesis time, synthesis temperature and Li/M (M=transition metal) ratio. The degree of cation mixing gets worse as the Ni content is increased from $Li[Ni_{0.6}Co_{0.2}Mn_{0.2}]O_2$ (NCM6) to $Li[Ni_{0.8}Co_{0.1}Mn_{0.1}]O_2$ (NCM8). It is confirmed that higher level of cation mixing affects negatively on the electrochemical performance of NCMs. Optimum synthesis conditions are explored for NCMx (x=6, 7, 8) in order to reduce the cation mixing. Under optimized conditions for three representative NCMx, a high initial discharge capacity and a good cycle life are obtained for $180mAh{\cdot}g^{-1}$, 96.2% (50 cycle) in NCM6, $187mAh{\cdot}g^{-1}$, 94.7% (50 cycle) in NCM7, and $201mAh{\cdot}g^{-1}$, 92.7% (50 cycle) in NCM8, respectively.

      • KCI등재

        지하 콘크리트 구조물에 적용되는 합성고무계 및 시멘트계 주입형 보수재료의 화학 저항성능평가

        김수연,이정훈,송제영,김병일,오상근,Kim, Soo-Yeon,Lee, Yeon-Sil,Song, Je-Young,Kim, Byoungil,Oh, Sang-Keun 한국구조물진단유지관리공학회 2017 한국구조물진단유지관리공학회 논문집 Vol.21 No.5

        본 연구에서는 지하 콘크리트 구조물의 누수 균열에 사용되는 주입형 누수보수재료의 품질관리 방안으로 규격화된 국제표준 ISO TS 16774, Part 2 Test method for chemical resistance를 이용하여 현재 우리나라 누수보수현장에서 사용하고 있는 주입형 누수보수재료 2계열(합성고무계, 시멘트계), 3종류 씩, 총 9 종류의 보수재료에 대한 지하 콘크리트 구조물이 처한 화학적 환경의 저항 안정성을 연구 검토하였다. 그 결과, 합성고무계는 RG-3를 제외하고, 산에 대한 저항력을 높일 수 있는 재료적 검토가 필요하고, 시멘트계는 수산화나트륨, 염화나트륨에 대한 저항을 높일 수 있는 재료적 검토의 필요성이 확인되었다. 이러한 결과는 콘크리트 구조물의 화학적 환경에서의 보수재료 선정 시 기본 지표로 사용가능 할 것으로 판단된다. 또한, 추후에 연구 개발 되는 보수재료의 품질 향상에 반영할 수 있는 기준 자료의 활용을 기대할 수 있다. In this study, by using the international standards ISO TS 16774, Part 2 Test method for chemical resistance as a quality control method of injection type repair material used for leakage crack of underground concrete structure, the performance requirement against of chemical environment of underground concrete structures for repair materials was tested. For this testing 3 types for each of the 2 classes of repair materials(synthetic rubber, cement), with a total of 9 types repair materials, were selected and examined. As a result, the test results showed that the smallest performance deterioration by the change in the mass was with the synthetic rubber(RG) type as opposed to the cement type system, showing that the synthetic rubber type had the strongest relative resistance to chemical exposure. Furthermore, it is necessary to investigate the material with high resistance to chemical substances and to examine the material which can increase resistance to sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride in cement system. These results can be used as a basic index for the selection of repair materials with the strongest resistance to chemical environment found in concrete structures. In addition, it is expected that the test results derived in this study can be used as reference data that can be reflected in the quality improvement of the maintenance material to be developed later.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Imaging Findings of Pneumothorax Caused by Bronchial Cartilage Hypoplasia in a Dog

        김수연,김성수,이저순,윤수경,오현정,손정민,김보은,김완희,윤정희,최민철,Kim, Su-yeon,Kim, Seong-soo,Lee, Jeo-soon,Yun, Soo-kyung,Oh, Hyun-jung,Shon, Jung-min,Kim, Bo-eun,Kim, Wan-hee,Yoon, Jung-hee,Choi, Min-cheol The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics 2015 한국임상수의학회지 Vol.7 No.2

        10년령의 중성화된 수컷 Poodle이 기흉이 의심되어 내원하였다. 어릴 때부터 기침증상을 보이다가 약 2주 전부터 악화되었으며, 혈액검사 및 요검사에서 유의적인 특이소견은 발견되지 않았다. 흉부 방사선 영상에서 기흉 소견 및 좌측 전엽 부위 기관지의 단절과 고도로 감소된 폐 실질이 관찰되었다. 흉부의 CT 영상 검사에서, 좌측 전엽과 덧엽에서 몇 개의 cyst들과 허탈된 폐가 관찰되었다. 또한 이 부위에서 기관지와 세기관지들은 비정상적인 형태로 끝부분이 가늘어지지 않았으며, 그 외에도 기흉, 기종격, 그리고 피하 기종이 확인되었다. 이러한 영상학적 특징들로부터 기종성 수포의 파열에 의해 발생한 자발성 기흉이 고려되었으며, 그 원인으로는 선천적인 기관지의 이상 또는 기관지 가지의 기형이 고려되었다. 부분적인 폐 덧엽 절제술이 실시되었으며, 좌측 전엽, 우측 중엽, 그리고 덧엽의 저형성이 확인되었고 특히 덧엽에서는 공기가 새고 있는 수포가 확인되었다. 조직병리학적 검사를 통해 기관지 연골 저형성으로 최종 진단되었다. A 10-year-old, castrated poodle dog presented with a cough for 2 weeks, and the cough initially developed since very young age. On radiographs, pneumothorax was noticed by characteristics of radiolucent area without pulmonary markings along the thoracic wall and diaphragm, retracted lung lobes from the thoracic wall and severely decreased volume of the left cranial lung lobe with disconnected bronchus. Computed tomography (CT) findings identified several pulmonary air-filled cysts and collapsed lung with abnormal shape and non-tapered end of bronchus, bronchioles at the accessory lobe and left cranial lobe. Also, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema were found. Imaging diagnosis was the spontaneous pneumothorax caused by ruptured emphysematous bullae associated with congenital bronchial cartilage abnormality or bronchial tree malformation. On surgery, hypoplasia of the left cranial lobe, right middle lobe, and accessory lobe with a bulla where air was leaking was identified. The accessory lobe was partially resected and bronchial cartilage hypoplasia was confirmed by histopathologic examination.

      • KCI등재

        국내 대기업 사회공헌 담당자들이 인식하는 사회공헌 활동의 기대 효과와 PR의 역할에 대한 질적 고찰

        김수연(Kim, Soo?Yeon),권지현(Kwon, Jeehyun) 한국광고홍보학회 2017 한국광고홍보학보 Vol.19 No.3

        이 연구는 기업의 사회공헌 활동을 위한 PR의 역할과 그 주요 효과를 탐색해 보고자 국내 100대 기업 내 14개 기업 소속 16명의 사회공헌 담당자들과 심층 인터뷰를 진행하였다. 사회공헌 담당자들은 사회공헌 활동의 주요 기대 효과로 브랜드 관리와 위기관리를 들어서 사회공헌 활동을 통한 명성 관리 효과를 가장 주요하게 인식하고 있었다. 사회공헌 활동을 위한 PR의 역할은 ‘주요한 경영적 역할’, ‘커뮤니케이션 역할’, ‘사회공헌 활동의 하위 기능’, ‘관련 없음’의 네 가지로 구분되었는데, 이러한 상반된 인식의 기저에는 PR을 과정으로 이해하는 입장과 PR을 내/외부로 알리는 커뮤니케이션으로 국한해서 이해하는 입장 차가 있었으며 사회공헌 활동을 대외적으로 알려야 하는 당위성에 대한 의견 차도 확인 가능했다. 이 연구는 사회공헌 활동의 기대 효과와 PR의 역할을 국내 대기업 소속 사회공헌 담당자들의 언어로 규명함으로써 그들의 입장과 시각에 대한 실무적 이해를 높이고 사회공헌 활동과 관련한 PR이 나아가야 할 방향을 제시했다는 데 의의가 있다. In-depth interviews with 16 CSR managers representing 14 companies on the 2015 Korean Large Company 100 list were conducted to explore the role of public relations in corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and CSR effects. CSR managers perceived that public relations plays a significant role in brand management and crisis management related to CSR. They identified four roles regarding the relationship between public relations and CSR: significant management role, communication role, subfunction of CSR activities, and no role. These different perceptions result from CSR managers’ different understandings of public relations. Some understood public relations as a process, while others regarded public relations as a publicity function targeting internal and external publics. Finally, this study is meaningful in that it explores the role of public relations in CSR activities by investigating the practical perceptions of CSR managers.

      • KCI등재

        온도에 따른 암모니아 용액에 의한 CO<sub>2</sub> 포집 반응의 변화 양상

        김수연,최예슬,김동수,Kim, Soo-Yeon,Choi, Ye-Seul,Kim, Dong-Su 한국물환경학회 2011 한국물환경학회지 Vol.27 No.6

        The features of the capture reaction of $CO_2$ by ammonia solution have been investigated along with the effect of temperature on the reaction based upon computer program-utilizing calculation and thermodynamic estimation. The stable region of $CO{_3}^{2-}$ was observed to increase with temperature and the change of the stable region of $CO{_3}^{2-}$ with temperature was greater than the temperature variation of the stable region of other carbonate species. The distribution diagram for $NH_4{^+}-NH_3$ system was constructed and the rise of temperature resulted in the decrease of the stability of $NH_4{^+}$ ion, which was thought to be due to the endothermic nature of its acidic dissociation. Considering the introduction of $Ca^{2+}$ ion in the carbon capture reaction by $NH_4{^+}$, the temperature was observed to be important in the determination of the order of reaction between carbonate ion and these cations. The removal process of $CO_2$ gas by ammonia solution was presumed to occur in open system and the temperature variations of the concentration of carbonate system species along with their total concentration were calculated for the proper control and design of the real process.

      • KCI등재

        RBM 표면 테이퍼형태 임프란트의 단기간 후향적 임상 평가

        김수연,김영균,Kim, Soo-Yeon,Kim, Young-Kyun 대한악안면성형재건외과학회 2011 Maxillofacial Plastic Reconstructive Surgery Vol.33 No.2

        Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of resorbable blasting media surface tapered implant. Methods: 169 Osstem$^{(R)}$ GS III dental implants in 73 patients who received implant treatments at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, were included in this study. The incidence of biological and prosthetical complications has been carefully analysed for each implant. Results: The short-term implant survival rate was 97.63%, success rate 94.7%. The prevalence of biological complications was 15.38% and the prevalence of prosthetic complications was 13.04%. The mean value of crestal bone loss was $0.28{\pm}0.57$ mm. The relationship between loading periods and marginal bone loss was small and not statistically significant. In mandible, marginal bone loss was larger than in maxilla, no statistically significant. Also, length and diameter of implant had no relationship with marginal bone loss. Conclusion: We suggest that this implant system could achieve successful and stable results.

      • KCI등재후보

        막유화법을 이용한 단분산성 실리카-루비덤<sup>®</sup> 마이크로 입자의 제조 및 잠열 특성

        김수연,정연석,이선호,유진오,염경호,Kim, Soo-Yeon,Jung, Yeon-Seok,Lee, Sun-Ho,You, Jin-Oh,Youm, Kyung-Ho 한국응용과학기술학회 2015 한국응용과학기술학회지 Vol.32 No.2

        최근들어 에너지 고갈로 인해 에너지 저장 및 대체 에너지에 대한 관심이 점차 높아 지고 있다. 이로 인해 상변화 물질을 이용한 에너지 저장 및 이동에 대한 연구가 활발히 진행 되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 SPG막(Shirasu porous glass membrane)을 통한 막유화법을 이용하여 상변화 물질인 파라핀계 루비덤$^{(R)}$ (RT-21과 RT-24)을 분산상으로 하여 단분산성 마이크로 입자를 제조하고, 외부를 실리카로 코팅하여 열정 안정성을 향상시키고 열적 특성을 조사하였다. 단분산성 루비덤$^{(R)}$ 입자의 제조를 위해 분산상 압력, 유화제 농도, 루비덤$^{(R)}$과 실리카의 비율을 변수로 하여 평균 입자 크기 $7-8{\mu}m$를 얻었다. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)와 Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA)를 이용하여 열적 안정성과 잠열 등의 열적 특성을 조사하였고, Particle size analyzer (PSA), Scanning electron microscopy(SEM), optical microscopy를 이용하여 입자 분포와 캡슐화 유무를 확인하였다. 또한, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)를 통하여 정성분석을 시행하였다. 결과적으로, 막유화법을 이용하여 얻은 실리카 코팅된 단분산성 루비덤$^{(R)}$ 입자는 향상된 열적 안정성을 보였으며, 순수한 루비덤$^{(R)}$의 80% 이상의 잠열을 유지하는 것을 보여 기존의 상변화 물질의 상안정성을 보완하여 열저장성 기능성 벽지와 건축물, 인테리어 제품에 사용 가능함을 알 수 있었다. Recently, the importance of energy saving and alternative energy is significantly increasing due to energy depletion and the phase change material (PCM) research for saving energy is also actively investigating. In this research, the membrane emulsification using SPG membrane was used to make various microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) particles which were comprised of $Rubitherms^{(R)}$ (RT-21 and RT-24) core and silica coating. We investigated the pressure of the dispersion phase, the concentration of surfactant, and the ratio of $Rubitherm^{(R)}$ and silica to prepare various MPCM particles. The DSC and TGA were used to examine the heat stability and latent heat properties. Also, PSA, SEM, and optical microscopy were used to confirm the size of $Rubitherm^{(R)}$ particles and the thickness of silica shell. The average of particle size was $7-8{\mu}m$. And, FT-IR was also used to enforce the qualitative analysis. Finally, the MPCM particles obtained from membrane emulsification showed monodispersed size distribution and the heat stability and latent heat were kept up to 80% compared to pure $Rubitherm^{(R)}$. So, it can be effectively used for wallpaper, buildings and interior products for energy saving as PCMs.

      • KCI등재

        읽기부진아를 위한 체험형 독서프로그램 설계 - 방법 및 효과 -

        김수연,강정아,Kim, Soo-Yeon,Kang, Jeong-Ah 한국문헌정보학회 2012 한국문헌정보학회지 Vol.46 No.3

        이 연구는 생각과 경험이 역동적으로 상호작용할 수 있는 읽기 체험 활동을 통해 읽기부진아들의 자아존중감을 향상시킬 수 있는 체험형 독서프로그램을 설계하고자 한다. 그리고 이 연구를 통해 설계한 체험형 독서프로그램을 적용했을 때 연구 대상자들의 자아존중감 향상에 실제로 어떤 효과가 있는지를 검증하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 이 연구는 읽기부진아를 위한 체험형 독서프로그램을 설계하고 개발하였다. 교수설계의 ADDIE모형에 따라 그림책을 활용하여 체험형 독서프로그램을 설계하였으며, Kolb의 나선형 체험학습 단계를 체험형 독서프로그램의 장면에 적용하였다. 체험의 과정을 통하여 정서 개발에 도움이 될 수 있는 학습경험이 이루어질 수 있도록 관심의 증대 ${\rightarrow}$ 구체화 ${\rightarrow}$ 명료화의 흐름을 제공하였다. 둘째, 읽기부진아를 위한 체험형 독서프로그램이 자아존중감을 향상시키는데 미치는 효과에 대하여 연구대상자의 사전사후 검증 결과, 전체 자아존중감 점수가 향상되었고, 하위요인별로 학업적 자아존중감, 사회적 자아존중감에서 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 연구는 읽기부진아를 위한 사회적 환경과 독서 환경 즉, 적절한 독서프로그램이 도서관에서 제공되고 이를 제도화시켜 지속적으로 지원한다면, 읽기부진아의 독서태도를 신장시켜 독서습관을 형성하고, 독서를 통한 자아존중감 향상에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 데 기여할 수 있음을 시사한다. The purposes of this study are to design and apply an experienced-based reading program using picture books for the struggling readers to improve their reading ability; and to analyze and verify how this program influences their self-esteem. The final objects of this study are 53 struggling readers who are 1-4th graders in 8 elementary schools. For this, the specific goals are set up as follows: First, an experience-based reading program using ADDIE teaching design model and Kolb's experience learning cycle are planned and developed to improve reading abilities and self-esteem of the struggling readers. Second, it also aimed to clarify how the experience-based reading program using picture books influence the struggling readers' self-esteem in affective ones. As a result, this experience-based reading program using picture books is effective on improving the struggling readers' self-esteem, generally. Although the degree of improvement is different from each of the subordinate factors, the overall scores of self-esteem are raised. This study suggests that an experience-based reading program using picture books is appropriate for improving the affective characteristics of the struggling readers. And it is also needed to produce a research manual to get the same test condition that prescribes the methods of pre-test and post-test.

      • KCI등재

        원주 지역 주민들의 사상체질과 심박수변이도와의 상관성

        김수연,선승호,유준상,고상백,박종구,Kim, Soo-Yeon,Sun, Seung-Ho,Yoo, Jun-Sang,Koh, Sang-Baek,Park, Jong-Ku 대한한방내과학회 2009 大韓韓方內科學會誌 Vol.30 No.3

        Objective : This study was designed to find the correlation between Sasang Constitution and heart rate variability(HRV). Method : There were 665 subjects (280 men and 385 women), between 39 and 72 years old. in a rural community. Sasang Constitution was diagnosed by a Sasang constitutional specialist using PSSC (Phonetic System for Sasang Constitution), face and tongue photo and checkup-list. A structured-questionnaire was used to assess the general characteristics. HRV was recorded using SA-2000 (medi-core). HRV was assessed by time domain and by frequency domain analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined on the basis of clustering of risk factors, when three or more of the following cardiovascular risk factors were included : blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride HDL-cholesterol, and abdominal obesity (waist). Because of the skewness of the data, logarithmic transformation was performed on the absolute units of the spectral components of HRV, and the resulting logarithmic values and normalized units were compared between the groups by a logistic regression. The 95% confidence interval (CI) of the odds ratio was used and calculated from the data laid out for a cross sectional study. Results : 1. Odds ratios of Taeeumin and Soeumin in female adults below 60 years old were significantly lower than that of Soyangin in LF norm and LF/HF ratio. Odds ratios of Taeeumin and Soeumin in female adults below 60 years old were significantly higher than that of Soyangin in HF norm. 2. There was no significant correlation between HRV and Sasang Constitution in female adults from 60 years old and over. 3. There was no significant correlation between HRV and Sasang Constitution in male adults. Conclusion : There is a statistically significant correlation between the HRV and Sasang Constitution. There is a tendency of increase in the sympathetic activity in Soyangin. There is a tendency of decrease in the parasympathetic activity in Taeeumin and Soeumin.

      • KCI등재

        절식요법에 참가한 여성들의 섭식태도와 우울에 대한 연구

        김수연,장인수,권보형,김락형,Kim Su-Yeon,Jang In-Soo,Kwon Bo-Hyung,Kim Lak-Hyung 대한한방신경정신과학회 2001 동의신경정신과학회지 Vol.12 No.2

        Objectives: Obesity is related to psychological problems as well as physical problems. This study was designed to investigate the eating attitude and depression of females who participated in a fasting therapy. They were considered to have many eating attitude and psychological problems. Methods: 59 females were selected, they were admitted in Woosuk university hospital of oriental medicine(from August 1st, 2000 to July 31th, 2001) and 42 females were selected, they were college students of Woosuk university, Jeonju, Korea. We checked height, weight and administerd the Korean Eating Attitudes Test-26(KEAT-26), Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and questions about binge-eating, smoking, drinking, exercise and body weight-wanted to females in two groups. Results: In fasting women group, 2(3.39%) were underweight, 24(40.68%) were average. The average of KEAT-26 in fasting women group$(13.33{\pm}7.65)$ was higher than that in college women group$(4.76{\pm}5.54)$(p<0.001). In fasting women group, 5(8.47%) had mild eating problem, 4(6.78%) had moderate eating problem, and 5(8.47%) had severe eating problem. In fasting women group, 47(79.66%) said 'yes' at the question(A-1, DSM-IV bulimia nervosa diagnosis), 33(55.93%) said 'yes' at the question(A-2, DSM-IV bulimia nervosa diagnosis) about binge eating. In fasting women group, 14(23.73%) had used vomiting, 13(22.03%) enemas, 27(45.76%) laxatives, 7(11.86%) diuretics, 6(10.17%) other drugs, 38(64.41%) fasting, 15(25.42%) severe exercise, and others 2(3.39%) to reduce their weight. The average of BDI in fasting women group$(12.44{\pm}6.70)$ was higher than that in college women group$(7.47{\pm}5.48)$(p<0.001). In fasting women group, 10(16.95%) had mild depression problem, 4(6.78%) had moderate depression problem, and 3(5.08%) had severe depression problem. In fasting women group, 41(64.49%) had under 5Kg-gap, and 18(30.51%) has over 5Kg-gap between weight-reasonable and weight-wanted. In 26 fasting women who were underweight or average-weight, 14 had over 5Kg-gap. Conclusions: These results suggest that the females who participated in a fasting therapy had many depression and eating problems, and we should pay attention to the eating disorders and psychological problems including depression as well as the physical problems when we treat obesity.

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