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The present study was to investigate the regulation of heat shock (HS) response and the role of HSP70 by monitoring HSP70 synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster tissues. When the salivary glands dissected from third instar larvae were heat-shocked at 37℃ in the medium containing canavanine instead of arginine, transcription of HSP genes continued and canavanine-substituted HSP70 was accumulated in vast quantities. But if the synthesis of normal (arginine-incorporated) HSP70 was permitted, a specific quantity of functional HSP must accumulate before transcription of HSP genes was repressed. Also, in the case of actinomycin D treatment, HSPs must have accumulated before normal protein synthesis was restored. The HSP70 showed a binding capacity to RNA, however, analog substitution eliminated the binding potential of HSP70 to RNA. When the labeled salivary glands were chased at 24℃, the binding capacity to RNA was eliminated. In conclusion, it seemed that the level of HSPs synthesis was self-controlled posttranscriptionally and that HSP70 was bound to nuclear RNA during the HS or the initial part of recovery.
노랑초파리의 ultraspiracle 유전자 산물(Usp)은 ecdysone receptor(EcR)와 이합체를 형성함으로서 호르몬의 작용을 매개하는 전사인자로써 스테로이드 호르몬 수용체군에 속한다. 유전적인 분석과 분자생물학적 분석에 의하면 Usp는 초파리 배발생, 눈의 형태형성, 암컷의 생식과정에 관여한다. 본 연구에서는 발생과정중에 각 조직에서 usp유전자의 발현양상을 immunocytochemistry와 insitu Hybridization 방법으로 조사하였다. Usp의 발현은 발생의 전과정을 통해 조사된 모든 조직의 핵에서 검출되었다. 본 연구결과는 Usp는 발생과정에서 호르몬의 작용을 매개할 뿐 아니라 암컷과 수컷의 생식과정에도 관여한다고 사료된다. ultraspiracle(usp) gene produt(Usp) is a member of the superfamily of steroid hormone receptors in Drosophila melanogasler which mediate the hormone action by heteromerization with ecdysone receptor(EcR). Based on the genetic and molecular characterization of usp, it has been proposed that Usp funtions in at least three significant developmental pathway: embryogenesis, eye morphogenesis, and female reproduction. The expression patterns of Usp were investigated in individual tissues from different developmental stages of Drosophila. Usp is localized in the nucleus with ubiquitous distribution throughout development. This result suggests that Usp is not a transcriptional regulatory factor modulating the various process involving hormone response, but also associated with female and male reproduction in development of Drosophila.
The ultraspiracle (usp) locus encodes a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily in Drosophila melanogaster that mediate the hormone action by heteromerization with ecdysone receptor (EcR). Previous studies have shown that Usp protein is localized in the nucleus with ubiquitous distribution throughout development, suggesting the pleiotropy of usp gene function during development. To investigate the usp gene function in vivo, we have isolated three recessive lethal usp mutations through EMS mutagenesis. The lethal phases of three usp mutants (usp/Y male derived from heterozygous usp/ + mothers) were 1st or 2nd larval stage, and aneuploids carrying two usp mutant alleles and a putative variegating usp + allele often developed deformities of the adult wing disc (cleft thorax phenotype) and third leg disc. The molecular sequence changes associated with a subset of three mutations were determined. Among three alleles found in this study, two alleles (usp^(554), usp^(584)) showed an identical base changes (130 Arg to Cys) as shown in usp⁴ allele, indicating these two alleles were identical mutations with usp⁴. The other recessive lethal usp mutation (usp^(599)) showed a substitution of amino acid (460 Arg to His) in hormone binding domain.
Temperature affects the rate of development of an organism. To investigate the effects of the extreme temperature on the developmental profiles in Drosophila melanogaster vestigial mutant, the early first-instar larvae were incubated at temperature extreme (31℃) for 2 days and transferred thereafter to moderate temperature (24℃), and the enzyme activities and the changes in the electrophoretic patterns of glycerol-3- phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase were studied throughout the developmental stages. The thermophene that has relatively normal wing was induced by temperature treatment from vestigial phenotype, but the life span of adult thermophene flies was shortened. The enzyme activities of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase during development were markedly influenced by temperature treatment in vestigial mutant comparing with the normal wild type files; however, the electrophoretic patterns of both enzymes were not changed.
The distributions of C_5 isozyme of the serum cholinesterase (E₂locus) and group-specific component (Gc) subtypes were studied in populations of Korea. The frequencies of C_5 were 0.091 in Seoul, 0.0836 in Kangreung, and 0.0318 in Cheju population. The gene frequencies of Gc were Gc¹F=0.4619, Gc¹S=0.2780, and Gc²=0.2601 in Seoul population. The observed numbers of phenotypes were in good agreements with the expected numbers on the basis of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both systems. These findings were discussed in comparison with of other populations.
Chitin의 탈아세틸화로 얻어지는 화합물인 chitosan과 chitooligosaccharide는 다양한 생리활성 기능을 나타내므로 생물의학적인 응용에 많은 관심이 집중되고 있다. 본 연구는 수용성 chitooligosaccharide가 생쥐의 간 기능에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여 수행되었다. 6주 동안 3% cholesterol를 식이한 생쥐에서는 혈장 cholesterol 함량이 증가하였으나, 1% chitooligosaccharide와 3% cholesterol을 함께 식이한 생쥐에서는 혈장 cholesterol 함량이 23% 정도 감소하였다. 그러나 혈장내 HDL-cholesterol과 간내 cholesterol 함량에는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 한편, 15% ethanol을 8주간 투여한 생쥐에서는 inflammation, necrosis, 지방구의 축적, GPT의 활성 증가 등 간 상해가 관찰되었다. 그와 반면에 0.5% chitooligosaccharide와 15% ethanol을 함께 투여한 생쥐에서는 ethanol에 의해 유발된 간 상해가 현저히 억제되어 지방구의 축적이 관찰되지 않았고, 혈장의 GPT 활성이 25%정도 감소하였다. 따라서, chitooligosaccharide가 생쥐에서 혈장 cholesterol 함량을 감소시키고, 알코올성 지방간을 예방하는 등 부분적인 기능이 있음을 보여주었다. Chitosan is the deacetylated product of chitin. Chitosan and its derivatives have many properties that make them attractive for a wide variety of health applications. This study was performed to investigate some effects of water soluble chitooligosaccharides on liver function in the mouse. The animals given the sterol diet containing 3% cholesterol for 6 weeks showed increase in plasma cholesterol level, which were lowered by 23% when they were fed on 1% chotooligosaccharide. While there was no significant change in liver cholesterol and plasma HDL-cholesterol levels. Continuous administration of 15% ethanol via drinking water to mice for 8 weeks elicited pathological alterations such as inflammation, necrosis, accumulation of lipid droplets in the liver and increase in GPT activity, while simultaneous administration of ethanol and chitooligosaccharide prevented remarkedly ethanol-induced liver injury; there was no observable lipid droplet and GPT activity was decreased by 25% in the liver. These results suggest that chitooligosaccharide play some roles in liver function, such as reducing the plasma cholesterol level and preventing alcoholic liver disease.
Red cell Glyoxalase I (GLO) and Adenosine deaminase(ADA) polymorphisms in Korean population were studied by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis, and serum haptoglobin (Hp) subtypes were studied by acidic urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Among 513 individuals, GLO phenotypes were GLO 1(0.78%), GLO 2 -1(11.89%), and GLO 2(87.32%). The gene frequencies of GLO^1 and GLO²were 0.067 and 0.933, respectively. Among 513 individuals, ADA phenotypes were ADA 1 (91.42%), ADA 2-1(8.19%), and ADA 2(0.39%). The gene frequencies estimated for ADA¹and ADA²were 0.9552 and 0.0448, respectively. Among 509 individuals, Hp subtypes were 1-1SS(6.8%), 2-1F (0.19%), 2-1S(36.74%), and 2-2(56.39%). Calculated gene frequency values of Hp^(1F), Hp^(1S), and Hp²were 0.0010, 0.2505, and 0.7485, respectively. The gene frequencies and polymorphic phenotypes of GLO, ADA, and haptoglobin subtypes were discussed in comparison with the other populations.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining has been employed to study genetic variation of 59 red cell lysates in Korean (Cheju) population. Forty-nine polypepetides selected without respect to variability were considered suitable for scoring. Genetic variations were encounted in 6 of these polypeptides. Ninety-eight of total 2,891 polypeptides exhibited the combination of a normal and a variant polypepetide. The index of heterozygosity estimated in this study was 3.3 ± 0.23%. The heterozygosity in Korean population was compared with those in other populations.