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In the original design of K2 tank the Vertical Sensor Unit(VSU) was mounted to measure the attitude of the main gun to enhance the hit probability. In this research, as a part of efforts to reduce the cost of K2, it was theoretically simulated and evaluated to use the data from Inertial Navigation System(INS) for the calculation of the gun attitude instead of the direct measurement using VSU. It was found that the negative effect of INS approach is negligible and the elimination of VSU is technically possible and beneficial to the system.
G-induced Loss of Consciousness(G-LOC) can be predicted by measuring Electromyogram(EMG) signals. Existing studies have mainly focused on specific body parts and lacked of consideration with quantitative EMG indices. The purpose of this study is to analyze the indices of EMG signals by human body parts for monitoring G-LOC condition. The data of seven EMG features such as Root Mean Square(RMS), Integrated Absolute Value(IAV), and Mean Absolute Value(MAV) for reflecting muscle contraction and Slope Sign Changes(SSC), Waveform Length (WL), Zero Crossing(ZC), and Median Frequency(MF) for representing muscle contraction and fatigue was retrieved from high G-training on a human centrifuge simulator. A total of 19 trainees out of 47 trainees of the Korean Air Force fell into G-LOC condition during the training in attaching EMG sensor to three body parts(neck, abdomen, calf). IAV, MAV, WL, and ZC under condition after G-LOC were decreased by 17 %, 17 %, 18 %, and 4 % comparing to those under condition before G-LOC respectively. Also, RMS, IAV, MAV, and WL in neck part under condition after G-LOC were higher than those under condition before G-LOC; while, those in abdomen and calf part lower. This study suggest that measurement of IAV and WL by attaching EMG sensor to calf part may be optimal for predicting G-LOC.
In this paper, we propose BCMR (Block Classification with Monitor and Restriction) to ensure the isolation and to reduce the interference of blocks between a garbage collection and a wear leveling. The proposed BCMR monitors an endurance variation of blocks during the garbage collection and detects hot blocks by making a restriction condition based on this information. The proposal induces a block classification by its update frequency for the garbage collection and the wear leveling, so we will get a prolonged lifetime of NAND flash memory systems. In a performance evaluation, BCMR prolonged the lifetime of NAND flash memory systems by 3.95%, on average and reduced a standard deviation per block by 7.4%, on average.
This paper presents three potential risks in an environment that simultaneously performs the garbage collection and wear leveling in NAND flash memory. These risks may not only disturb the lifespan improvement of NAND flash memory, but also impose an additional overhead of page migrations. In this paper, we analyze the interference of garbage collection and wear leveling and we also provide two theoretical considerations for lifespan prolongation of NAND flash memory. To prove two solutions of three risks, we construct a simulation, based on DiskSim 4.0 and confirm realistic impacts of three risks in NAND flash memory. In experimental results, we found negative impacts of three risks and confirmed the necessity for a coordinator module between garbage collection and wear leveling for reducing the overhead and prolonging the lifespan of NAND flash memory.
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This study analyzes the livestock industry participant perception of meat auction markets and factors affecting the perception. It was revealed that livestock industry participants generally show positive perceptions about both the necessity and the function of price determination of auction markets. More positive perceptions are detected in Hanwoo market than in Handon market. The generalized ordered logit regression analysis shows that demographic and industry-related factors, such as the type of the participants, the frequencies of using auction markets, the duration of participation, etc, affect these perceptions in Hanwoo and Handon markets differently. For example, both auctioneers and farmers in Hanwoo industry significantly recognize the necessity of auction market, but physical distance from the Eumsung auction market affects the participant perception of auction market in Handon industry. Similar trend is also repeated for the function of price determination of auction markets. The results of the study indicate that improvement plans for auction markets must be differently approached for these markets.
In an electrospinning process, nanofibers are produced from a droplet of a viscoelastic polymer solution subjected to strong electric field. To date, intrinsic bending instability of the electrical jets has resulted in random piles of nanofibers on a grounded collector plate. Here we report a novel electrospinning process where a hollow micropillar is constructed by the coiling of nanofibers on a sharp grounded collector. We show that the hollow microstructure formation can be explained by the viscous fluid rope coiling theory. The current process can be employed for the fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds for cell culturing and the three-dimensional nanoprinting.
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SSI를 위한 협력적 수업 환경을 조성하기 위해 교사가 갖추어야 할 역량 중 하나는 발문이다. 본 연구에서는 SSI 수업을 수행하는 교사가 사용하는 발문의 유형 및 특성을 살펴봄으로써, 효과적인 SSI 수업을 위한 발문의 방향을 제안해보고자 하였다. 이에, 초등학교 6학년을 대상으로 SSI 수업을 진행한 한 교사(최교사)의 수업을 관찰한 후, 그의 SSI 수업에서 어떠한 기능의 발문들이 주로 활용되는지를 살펴보았다. 최교사는 6학년 1학기 과학 교과내용과 밀접하게 관련된 세 개의 SSI를 선정하여 수업을 진행하였다. 이 중 SSI 토론이 활발하게 진행된 수업을 녹음 및 전사하여 수업에서 나타난 최교사의 발문을 모두 추출한 후, 선행 연구에 기초하여 개발된 발문 유형 분류틀에 따라 분석하였다. 또한 수업 후 교사와의 면담을 통해 발문의 목적 및 기능에 대한 인식을 살펴보았다. 연구결과, 학생들에게 단순 정보나 의견을 확인 하는 발문(I)과 묘사 및 설명에 대한 요구(E)에 대한 발문 비중이 매우 높았다. 이에 반해, 개인의 생각 및 추론에 대해 도전하는 발문(C)이나 학생 간에 서로 의견을 보강하거나 반론을 제기하도록 함으로써 상호작용을 촉진하는 발문(S, R)은 매우 드물게 나타났다. Using appropriate questions is crucial in effectively utilizing various teaching strategies and formulating collaborative, discoursive learning environment in SSI classes. The purposes of the study, therefore, were to investigate the major characteristics of teacher questions used in SSI classes and to explore the difficulties that teachers might encounter when using questions. To achieve the aims, we observed SSI classes, taught by Ms. Choi, for 6th graders in the elementary school, and examined the types of questions that she used in her SSI classes. The teacher, Ms. Choi, designed three SSI classes tightly connected to the 2009 National Science Curriculum. The SSI classes were all audio-recorded. All the questions used by Ms. Choi were extracted and classified based on the questioning analysis framework. In addition, we interviewed Ms. Choi after the classes to understand her perceptions on the purposes and functions of questioning. The result indicated that questions for seeking simple information and opinions of individuals (I) and asking elaboration of the information and opinions (E) took majority of her questions. On the other hand, questions for challenging individuals’ thoughts (C), asking supports or refute for others’ opinions (S, R) were very rare. It is expected that this study guides teachers to plan various types of questions when they design SSI classes by presenting the characteristics of questions revealed in SSI classes
Although reasonably priced portable virtual reality (VR) devices are being rapidly introduced, there still exists a critical problem related to the visually induced motion sickness, which is largely caused by both actual and perceptual movements induced in users’ vestibular systems. Thus, this study examines whether engaging in body movements (hand gesture vs. no hand gesture) makes changes to users’ VR experience and perceptions. Results indicated that body movements induced during VR interactions lead to greater arousal, and the effect of body movement (on users’ feelings of presence) was moderated by eyewear usage.