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This research aims to analyze Korea"s growth path from the perspective of co-evolution of technology-organization-institution, identify organizational and institutional legacies formed in Korea in the course of compressed growth, and suggest what institutional transformation is necessary to pursue a new growth path in response to the digital transformation of the fourth industrial revolution. South Korea is moving from coordinated market economy (CME) to liberal market economy (LME) in the course of the 1997 financial crisis and subsequent structural reforms, and as a result, there is a mix of CME and LME systems. Korea has succeeded in pursuing a certain portion of both Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) and Learning by Doing, Using and Interacting (DUI) industries, but the pursuit is difficult in the extreme areas where STI or DUI attributes are strongly displayed, and this is because Korea"s institutional system is neither CME nor LME. From an institutional perspective, the digital transformation of the fourth industrial revolution calls for an institutional transition to LME, while the demand for localization of materials, parts and equipment triggered by recent export regulations by Japan calls for a return to CME. For Korea, an institutional mixed country with CME and LME, both directions are hard to give up, and this is the dilemma facing the Korean economy. Given the complementarity of the institution and the experience of history, it seems difficult to pursue both CME and LME at the same time, but the possibility of a mixed system of "LME-based, CME-complemented" types is also visible due to the spread of the LME system due to globalization and the decrease of the importance of proficiency due to digitalization. The institutional transition tasks, which should be pursued first for Korea’s innovation growth, include a virtuous circle of venture capital investment, a negative regulatory system, a manufacturing proficiency accumulation system, and the elimination of unbalanced relations between large and small- and medium-sized businesses.
2016년 1월 클라우스 슈밥이 ‘4차 산업혁명’을 처음 주창한 이후 이 용어는 정책 현장과 일반 대중에게 빠르게 확산되었지만, 그것의 실체에 대한 의구심과 개념적 논란은 사라지지 않고 있다. 이 논문에서는 이러한 ‘이론과 실천 사이의 간극’을 메우기 위해 그 동안 급하게 진행되었던 정책적, 실천적 논의에서 한 발 물러서서 4차 산업혁명론의 타당성을 따져보는 개념적, 이론적 논의를 진행하였다. 우선 슈밥의 4차 산업혁명론의 개요와 문제점, 그리고 그에 대한 고든과 리프킨의 비판을 살펴봄으로써 산업혁명을 판단하는 기준이 보다 명료하게 제시될 필요가 있음을 논증하였다. 그 다음에 산업혁명의 역사를 정리한 문헌을 참고해서 산업혁명의 성립 조건을 도출하고 이를 산업혁명의 판단 기준으로 제시하였다. 그리고 이 기준에 따라 최근 일어나는 변화가 슈밥이 주장한 바와 같이 ‘4차 산업혁명’에 해당하는지를 비판적으로 검토해보았다. 이러한 검토 결과, 현재 일어나고 있는 변화가 새로운 산업혁명으로 귀결될 가능성은 열려 있고, 그것은 큰 폭의 생산성 증가로 입증되어야 하지만, 그 경우에도 4차가 아닌 3차 산업혁명으로 보는 것이 더 타당하다는 결론에 도달했다. Since Klaus Schwab"s first declaration of coming of the "Fourth Industrial Revolution" in January 2016, the term has spread rapidly to the policy scene and the general public, but doubts and conceptual controversies about its reality have not disappeared. In this paper, I did a conceptual and theoretical work on the validity of the Fourth Industrial Revolution arguments to fill the gap between theory and practice. First of all, it was argued that the criteria for judging industrial revolution need to be presented more clearly, on the base of critical examination of Schwab’s arguments and Gordon and Rifkin"s criticisms on them. Then, we refer to the literature that summarizes the history of the industrial revolutions and derive the conditions for the establishment of the industrial revolution and present it as a criteria of the industrial revolution. And, according to this criteria, I have critically examined whether the recent changes correspond to the "Fourth Industrial Revolution" as claimed by Schwab. As a result of this review, it is concluded that the change that is taking place is likely to result in a new industrial revolution, which should be proven by a large increase in productivity, but even then it is more valid to see it as the third industrial revolution.
This paper reviews some current studies on collaborations in pharmaceutic industry. Collaboration is one of the key subjects in the innovation studies of pharmaceutical industry. In this preliminary review, several issues in collaborations, including motives, conditions, types, intensity, frequency, possibility of duration, are examined with some critiques on each authors. On the basis of this review, some theoretical and practical implications are addressed briefly.
중견/중소 IT기업의 사업 수행 기회 증대, 기회 균등과 역량 강화라는 취지로 소프트웨어(SW)산업진흥법 개정으로 공공정보화시장에 대기업 참여를 제한되었다. 이러한 환경에서의 중견/중소 SW기업들의 사업을 수행하면서 발생한 사업 수행 역량 미흡으로 공공정보화사업의 품질저하, 위험관리 미숙, 일정관리 저하 등 여러 문제점을 발생시키고 있다. 이를 해결하기 위해 본 논문은 시스템통합 사업 수행 시 품질 저하 요인을 도출하였으며, 이를 해결하기 위한 방안으로 VISUALIZATION, 엄격한 시험관리, Agile방법론의 일부 활동을 적용하여 프로젝트를 수행하는 것을 제안했다. 이러한 방안을 중견/중소 IT기업이 개발한 보건의료 IT 프로젝트에 적용한 결과 의사소통의 개선, 수치화된 진척 관리 및 프로젝트의 가시성이 개선되었다. 또한, 결함 해결시간 최소화, 요구사항 커리리지 비율 개선, 불필요한 회의시간이 단축이 되어 품질 향상에 기여하였습니다. This paper limited the participation of large corporations in the mass information market by revising the Software Industry Promotion Act in order to increase business opportunity, equality of opportunity, and capacity building for small and medium sized IT companies. However, it is a fact that the medium and small SW companies have insufficient business capacity and expose various problems such as quality degradation of public information business, inadequate risk management, and deterioration of schedule management. In order to solve this problem, this paper derived the factors of quality deterioration in the system integration project and proposed to carry out the project by using some activities of VISUALIZATION, rigorous test management and Agile Methodology as a solution. Applying these measures to healthcare IT projects developed by midsize / small-sized IT companies has improved communications, improved quantitative progress management and improved project visibility. In addition, it contributed to minimizing defect resolution time, improving the requirement coverage ratio, and shortening unnecessary meeting time.
In the field of cancer treatment, the progress of immunotherapy has been impressive over the past decade, and the paradigm of cancer treatment is at a turning point. Cancer immunotherapy, called third-generation anticancer drugs, are drugs that cause immune cells to directly kill cancer cells by regulating or enhancing immune cell functions in the body. It overcomes the limitations of the first generation chemotherapy and second generation target therapy. The incredible success of curing the intractable cancer patients is raising hopes that humankind may conquer cancer and opens up new market opportunities for pharmaceutical companies and start-ups. However, research and development in the field of immunotherapy were not actively pursued in Korea and policy responses are lacking. The major reason for this is that the scale of cancer immunotherapy is small, but the technical barriers to understanding cancer immunotherapy are high, suggesting the lack of a policy debate. Therefore, in order to move policy and strategic discussions about cancer immunotherapy forward more actively, a research report about current trends is necessary. This should include easy-to-understand technical explanations enabling non-experts to understand them easily. The purpose of this research is to explain the basics of cancer immunotherapy and to provide the latest information on emerging trends in cancer immunotherapy. Cancer immunotherapy can be divided into several subdivisions, and each category is complex when it comes to the technical details. Therefore, in this research, we focus on two areas that are receiving the greatest attention in recent years, "immune checkpoint Inhibitor’ and ‘CAR-T immunotherapy’ The content of this research is structured as follows. Chapter 1 explains the background, necessity and purpose of the study. The historical development of cancer therapy and the subsequent rise of cancer immunotherapy are briefly mentioned. Chapter 2 explains the possibility of immuno-chemotherapy through providing a basic understanding of the immune system in the context of anti-cancer immunity. In addition, the scope of the cancer immunotherapy analyzed in this study is outlined. Chapters 3 and 4 contain a review of basic mechanisms, outcomes, limitations, and global trends of the immune checkpoint inhibitors and the CAR-T immunotherapy, respectively. "Immune checkpoint inhibitors" are the first immunotherapeutic drugs that demonstrate efficacy and are FDA approved. CAR-T, the most promising therapy among various genetic manipulation immunotherapy strategies is mainly described. Chapter 5 suggests policy implications of the emerging cancer immunotherapy trends. In this chapter, we propose ‘biotechnology innovation policy in a broad context’ and ‘strategy for the development of cancer immunotherapy in a narrow context’.
Technological changes have been major factors triggering drastic changes of industrial landscapes. Emerging technologies have double-sided potentials to incumbent firms: they can be winner and also be looser. We developed a common framework to foresight the impacts on industrial structure of emerging technologies and applied it to 4 emerging technology areas: cognitive computing, 3D printing, internet of things, fintech. In each cases, we studied technological trends, changes of products, processes, services and business models, and structural changes of industrial landscapes. And we also examined main drivers and constraints moderating these changes. On the basis of these analysis, we suggest some policy recommendations and theoretical implications.
김석관(Seok-Kwan Kim),최병삼(Byong-Sam Choi),양희태(Hee Tae Yang),장필성(Pilseong Jang),손수정(Soo J. Sohn),장병열(Pyoung Yol Jang),이제영(Jei Young Lee),김승현(SeungHyun Kim),이다은(Daeun Lee),김단비(Danbi Kim),송성수(Sungsoo Song) 과학기술정책연구원 2017 정책연구 Vol.- No.-
Since the ’Fourth Industrial Revolution’ was first introduced in January 2016, this new term has been rapidly adopted by the Korean policy scene and the public. But the doubts and conceptual controversies about its reality persisted for last two years. The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of the 4th Industrial Revolution and to lay the foundations for the related policy discussions to be made on a more sound theoretical and conceptual basis through the following works. First, we found the conditions for the establishment of industrial revolution from the history of industrial revolutions. Second, we redefined the technological drivers of the Fourth Industrial Revolution from recent phenomena. Third, we made an outlook at what kind of industrial change this technological driver will bring and judged whether it would be a new industrial revolution. Fourth, policy implications for the response of the Fourth Industrial Revolution are derived from the understanding of the process of industrial change. Through this work, we have come to the conclusion that we are open to the possibility that a new industrial revolution will come, but this has to be confirmed through increased productivity, and in that case it is more appropriate to call it third industrial revolution rather than fourth one. Based on the observation that there are two types of fourth industrial revolution, we conclude that the most important challenge that the fourth industrial revolution bring to Korea will be institutional innovation. In addition, 5 innovation policy agenda for accelerating digital transformation are proposed: mitigation of entry regulation, expanding data infrastructure, enhancing entrepreneurial ecosystem, launching the }R&D New Deal’, and developing SW talents.
마이크로렌즈 어레이는 광학 시스템의 기본 부품으로, 사용 목적에 따라 초점거리가 다르게 제작되며, 대체로 긴 초점거리의 렌즈들이 많이 제작되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 졸겔(sol-gel) 내부에 들어있는 형광으로 염색된 물질을 관찰하기 위하여 마이크로렌즈 어레이를 제작하였다. 일반적으로 형광 현미경에서 관찰되는 형광 빛은 그 강도가 약하지만 마이크로렌즈를 이용할 경우 빛을 집중시켜 선명한 관찰이 가능하게 한다. 이를 실현시키기 위해 photoresist thermal reflow법을 사용하여 초점 거리가 짧은 마이크로렌즈를 제작하였으며, 렌즈의 형상 관련 오차를 측정하였다. 측정 오차에 기반을 둔 포토마스크 보정 및 스핀 코팅 조건을 조정하여 적합한 마이크로렌즈의 직경과 형상을 구현하였다. Microlens array as basic element of the optical system have been fabricated with various focal length (mainly with long focal length) depending on the purpose of application. In this paper, the microlens arrays were fabricated for observing fluorescent images within sol-gel. Though the fluorescent signal is very low, the microlens array can help obtaining clear images through extracting the fluorescent light from sol-gel. We fabricated microlens arrays with short focal length, which can extract the light using photoresist thermal reflow method. In the experiment, the diameter of microlens decreased after thermal reflow because the solvent within the photoresist was vaporized. Therefore, to compensate the shape error by this reduction, microlens diameter in photomask was altered and spin-coat recipe of photoresist were modified.
The health care industry is traditionally defined as a industry that provides medical services for treatment and prevention. The rapid advance of information and communication technology, however, have accelerated the innovation in health care and extended the definition of health care to personal care. Hence, the recent heath care industry consists of hospitals and private companies who produce health management products, for example, digital sensors, wearable devices, next generation sequencing and so on. These innovations in health care sector with new technology generate the various personal health care data which is a core of the next innovation. The health care data could be classified into four areas: medical electronic record, national health information, personal health record, and genome information. To manage these types of health care data in terms of generation, integration, analysis, and application, would be challenging because current health system and policy is still based on evidence-based medicine rather than precision medicine. On the other hand, the health care data would contribute on personalized suitable medical services as well as reduced medical costs. Some countries have already paid attention to the importance of data in health care innovation. In case of USA, the open innovation supported by government and private sector keeps continued to build the sound ecosystem of health care industry. Especially, US government has restructured the payment system on the basis of health care data. On the other hand, UK fails to implement the NPfIT because of top-down approach from government and closeness of system operations. These two cases show that our government also considers the open innovation and incentive program to attract private sector in health care innovation driven by data. This study examined and discussed how to develop appropriate policies and strategies for emerging health care innovations driven by data. First, it needs to build the governance structure which aims at the openness and the responsibility. A new organization that manages and integrates the entire health care data should be installed for inclusive governance to participate in various stakeholder. Second, financial incentive system for generators of health care data is also considered. Generators of health care data, e.g. hospitals, rely heavily on the government payment system in finance. Hence, the government investments to extend the infrastructure of health care data results in positive effects on spillover of health care innovation. Finally, two-track approach to utilize health care data is recommended. Horizontal approach to treat serious patients and vertical approach to care life-time health could be connected and integrated through health care innovation driven by data.