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The interaction between two different shaped structures is very important to be understood. Fluid-structure interactions and aerodynamics of a circular cylinder in the wake of a V-shaped cylinder are examined experimentally, including forces, shedding frequencies, lock-in process, etc., with the V-shaped cylinder width d varying from d/D = 0.6 to 2, where D is the circular cylinder diameter. While the streamwise separation between the circular cylinder and V-shaped cylinder was 10D fixed, the transverse distance T between them was varied from T/D = 0 to 1.5. While fluid force and shedding frequency of the circular cylinder were measured using a load cell installed in the circular cylinder, measurement of shedding frequency of the V-shaped cylinder was done by a hotwire. The major findings are: (i) a larger d begets a larger velocity deficit in the wake; (ii) with increase in d/D, the lock-in between the shedding from the two cylinders is centered at d/D = 1.1, occurring at d/D 0.95-1.35 depending on T/D; (iii) at a given T/D, when d/D is increased, the fluctuating lift grows and reaches a maximum before decaying; the d/D corresponding to the maximum fluctuating lift is dependent on T/D, and the relationship between them is linear, expressed as d/D=1.2+1/e T/D; that is, a larger d/D corresponds to a greater T/D for the maximum fluctuating lift.
This Article begins with a brief history of notaries from their origins in Rome in the first century B.C. to their present status and problems in U.S. English notaries were highly trained legal professionals who were required to be flulent in at least one language other than English and to be familiar wiht the law of at least one civil law country. The English notaries have been providing the link between the institutions of the common law and those of the civil law. Until the adption of United States Constitution in 1789, the work of American English general notaries were virtually identical and consisted of drafting, authenticating and maintaining a record of documents for use in international commerce. After the adoption of the Constitution, English and American notaries began to go their separate ways. The constitution left the appointment and regulation of notaries to the individual states rather than to the federal government. And while losing its international character, the work of American notaries has only been met the domestic needs of young nation. In order to give American notarial documents international standing, Florida and Alabama have recently created the new legal professional, Civil-Law Notary, who has the similar status and functions partly to the civil law notaries(or latin notaries) and partly to the English notaries. The concept of the Civil-Law Notary represents nothing less than a major philosophical shift in common-law adversarial way of doing business in the United States.