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Using a person-centered approach, the current study investigated latent profiles for the emotional and behavioral problems of students in sixth-grade in elementary school and second grade of middle school. The aim was to explore latent transition patterns and verify the factors affecting the transitions. The participants were 1,937 adolescents who responded to the 3<sup>rd</sup> year (6<sup>th</sup> grade of elementary school; Time 1), 4<sup>th</sup> year (1<sup>st</sup> grade of middle school), and 5<sup>th</sup> year (2<sup>nd</sup> grade of middle school; Time 2) of the Korean Children Youth Panel Study. Latent profile and latent transition analyses were performed. The results were as follows: first, the latent profile of emotional and behavioral problems changed from Time 1 to Time 2. The latent groups at Time 1 were classified into low, moderate, high, and externalizing-dominant, whereas at Time 2, five groups were identified: low, moderate, high, externalizing-dominant, and withdrawal-dominant. Second, transition analyses revealed that although 22.3-57.0% of latent groups remained unchanged, there were significant changes over time between groups, as a new group (‘withdrawal-dominant’) emerged in Time 2. Third, different factors influenced the latent profile transition of emotional and behavioral problems depending on the transition pattern. Higher levels of self-esteem, better relationships with peers and teachers, and lower levels of parental inconsistency meant emotional and behavioral problems had not worsened at Time 2. The results suggest that early interventions are needed during the transition from childhood to early adolescence.
본 연구는 미국 국립암연구소의 SEER 프로그램에서 제공하는 위암 3기 자료에 대해 항암치료의 효과를 비교하고 위암 생존율에 유의한 영향을 미치는 요인을 알아보고자 한다. 본 연구에서 분석한 위암 3기 자료는 비례위험 가정이 성립하지 않아 대안으로 제한된 평균 생존시간을 이용한 분석 방법을 자료 분석에 적용하였다. 의사-관측들을 이용하여 제한된 평균 생존시간을 추정하였고, 제한된 평균 생존시간 추정량에 기반한 검정통계량을 이용하여 항암치료의 효과를 파악하였다. 일반화 선형모형을 이용한 회귀모형을 통해 위암 3기 환자의 평균 생존시간에 유의한 영향을 미치는 공변량들의 효과를 추정하였다. 항암치료법에 따라 위암 3기 환자의 평균 생존시간에 유의한 차이가 있음을 확인하였고, 진단연령, 인종, 세분화병기, 분화도, 종양의 크기, 수술여부, 항암치료가 위암 3기 환자의 평균 생존시간에 유의한 영향을 미치는 요인들이였으며, 그 중 수술여부가 위암 3기 환자의 평균 생존시간을 늘리는데 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 요인임을 확인하였다. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of treatment on stage III stomach cancer data obtained from the SEER program of the National Cancer Institute and to identify the significant risk factors for the survival rates of stage III stomach cancer. Since the proportional hazards assumption was violated for treatment, we used the restricted mean survival time as an alternative to the proportional hazards model. The restricted mean survival time was estimated using pseudo-observations, and the effects of treatment were compared using a test statistic based on the estimated restricted mean survival times. We conducted the regression analysis using a generalized linear model to investigate the significant predictors for the restricted mean survival time of patients with stage III stomach cancer. We found that there was a significant difference between the restricted mean survival times of treatment groups. Age at diagnosis, race, substage, grade, tumor size, surgery, and treatment were significant predictors for the restricted mean survival time of patients with stage III stomach cancer. Surgery was the most significant predictor for increasing the restricted mean survival time of patients with stage III stomach cancer.
In this paper, we propose an RSSI sniffing function to reduce the time required for the cell search process. First we defined the RSSI measurement algorithm and then designed and implemented the protocol procedure between the PHY-RRC layers. In addition, to verify the performance, an experiment was conducted to find the ARFCN where the synchronization signal of the 5G commercial base station is located.
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to handwashing among undergraduate students majoring and not majoring in health science. Methods: This descriptive study included 188 undergraduate students with 100 majoring and 88 not majoring in health science. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and they were analyzed with the IBM SPSS 24.0 program using descriptive statistics, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation coefficients and a multiple regression. Results: Mean scores on knowledge and attitude toward handwashing were 13.86±1.56 and 21.05±2.34 respectively in students majoring health science, whereas the same were 13.22±1.73 and 19.76±2.24 in students not majoring health science respectively. In both groups, there was significant correlations between knowledge and attitude (r=.32, p<.001; r=.33, p=.002), and between attitude and practice (r=.27, p=.006; r=.40, p<.001) respectively. Attitude toward handwashing (β=0.20, p=.028), experience of education about handwashing (β=0.33, p<.001) and perception about health status (β=-0.23, p=.014) were significant predictors of handwashing practice in students majoring health science. On the other hand, only attitude toward handwashing (β=0.37, p<.001) was a significant predictor of handwashing practice in students not majoring health science. Conclusion: The present results reveal the importance continuing various educational programs on handwashing and the need to identify their longitudinal effects to improve handwashing practice among students majoring in health science. Additionally, when developing strategies to improve handwashing habits, we need to consider factors that could help change attitudes toward handwashing.