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      • KCI등재

        압력에 안정한 3분할 FFS 모드의 화소 설계에 관한 연구

        김미숙,신승민,정연학,김향율,김서윤,임영진,이승희,Kim, Mi-Sook,Seen, Seung-Min,Jung, Yeon-Hak,Kim, Hayng-Yuil,Kim, Seo-Yoon,Lim, Young-Jin,Lee, Seung-Hee 한국전기전자재료학회 2005 전기전자재료학회논문지 Vol.18 No.7

        We studied the external pressure-stable advanced frnge field switching (FFS) pixel design with 3 slit sructue. In this mode, a patterned pixel slit is partitioned into 3 areas, namely, two edges and a center, where the edge slit angle is larger than the center slit angle. Thus the reverse twist region in the pixel edge is reduced comparing to the conventional FFS mode so that the LC dynamics in this region becomes very stable. And also, when the external pressure is applied to the panel at the high voltage, the disclination lines (DLs) were barely intruded into active area. Therefore, the structure is use for the pen based system such as the tablet personal computer (PC), personal digital asistant (PDA).

      • KCI등재

        FFS 모드에서 Reverse Twist가 구동전압에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구

        김미숙,정연학,신승민,김향율,김서윤,임영진,이승희,Kim, Mi-Sook,Jung, Yeon-Hak,Seen, Seung-Min,Kim, Hyang-Yul,Kim, Seo-Yoon,Lim, Young-Jin,Lee, Seung-Hee 한국전기전자재료학회 2005 전기전자재료학회논문지 Vol.18 No.11

        We have studied on the effect of the operation voltage according to the reverse twist for the different fringe field switching (FFS) structure. The FFS structure with a vertically patterned edge of the pixel electrode (VPP) has lower operation voltage comparing to the one with a horizontally patterned edge of the pixel electrode (HPP). The reason is like that the number of the pattern of the pixel edge for the VPP structure is one third comparing with the HPP structure and thus, there is small reverse twist area for the VPP structure. Actually, the reverse twist disturbs the twist of LC near adjacent active area, result that LCs near there have the unstable dynamics. That is, the operation voltage increases as the reverse twist area increases. Therefore, it is very important to design pixel electrode with a small reverse twist region for the FFS mode.

      • KCI등재

        한국 여성노동력의 성격변화와 노동정책: 1960-2000

        김미숙(MiSook Kim) 한국인구학회 2006 한국인구학 Vol.29 No.1

        본 연구의 일차적 목적은 지난 40년간 일어난 초고속 경제성장의 경험에 유념하면서 한국 여성노동력의 성격변화와 그 대응양식으로서 노동(관련)정책을 해당 정권별(박정희-전두환-노태우-김영삼-김대중)로 구분하여 살펴보는 것에 있다. 60년대 초반 산업화 도입기부터 역대 정권은 각기 다른 모습으로 여성노동력을 저임금-단순-미숙련-산업인력으로 주변화시켜 왔음을 관련자료를 통해서 확인할 수 있었다. 구체적으로 60년대 산업화 초기에는 노동집약적 산업에 저임금 산업인력으로, 70년대 중화학공업 육성기에는 저임금을 특징으로 하는 전통적 여성직종에 집중배치되었다. 80년대 들어서는 의류 전자 신발 등의 업종으로부터 집단해고 또는 대량감원의 대상으로 전락하였다. IMF 경제위기 전후 90년대는 비정규직 노동의 확산과 고용불안정 혹은 실업이 한국 여성노동의 현실에 충격을 주어 여전히 그 영향력에서 벗어나지 못한 상태에 놓여있다고 하겠다. 한편 정부 측의 다양한 대응양식으로서 노동(관련) 정책이 제안되고 있으나, 불합리한 노동 현실의 근본적인 대안으로 평가되기에는 역부족이라고 말할 수 있을 것이다. This paper tries to explore the overall profile of Korean female labor force over the period of 1960-2000. A particular emphasis is put on portraying major over-time characteristics of female labor force, following five different political regimes--that of Park, J.H .(1960 and 1970s), of Chon D.H. (early and late 1980s), of Roh T.W. (late 1980-early 1990s), of Kim,Y.S. (early 1990-late 1990s), and of Kim. D. J. (late 1990-early 2000s), respectively. Discussions have centered around: 1) utilization of young single girls from rural areas during the early industrialization process of 1960-1985; 2) the beginning of married women's entry into labor market and issues of the so-called "M-curve" thesis in Korean experiences since 1990s; 3) the emergence and enlargement of non-regular workers; and 4) the launching of labor related legal measures such as the Equal Employment Act of 1988 and its successive revisions, the Maternity Leave Acts, the On-the-Job Childcare Centers, and the prohibition of sexual harassments on the job setting, and so on. All in all, although it is undeniable that the Korean female labor force has experienced much progress over the period of time in terms of "equality and protection" issues, overall industrial reality we are facing with has not been so prosperous in the sense that most women workers have become the victims of industrial polarization, as time goes by.

      • KCI등재

        TN 모드와 FFS 모드에서 Pretilt Angle이 전기 광학 특성 및 동력학 안정성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구

        김미숙,정연학,김향율,김서윤,이승희,Kim, M.S.,Jung, Y.H.,Kim, H.Y.,Kim, S.Y.,Lee, S.H. 한국전기전자재료학회 2004 전기전자재료학회논문지 Vol.17 No.11

        We studied on the electro-optic characteristics and dynamic stability according to an undesirably defined pretilt angle induced in high step coverage of pixel area for the Twisted Nematic (TN) / Fringe-Field Switching (FFS) mode. In case of the TN mode, LC directors twist reversely near the edges of thin-film-transistor and black matrix where the pretilt angle of the LC is not well defined. Therefore, the voltage-dependent dynamics of the LC in TN mode is unstable and shows the bad electro-optic characteristics. On the other hand, in case of the FFS mode, the LCs are twisted parallel to the bottom substrate by fringe electric field and the electro-optic characteristic is not influenced by the pretilt angle of the LC which is not well defined.

      • KCI등재

        FFS 모드에서 러빙 방향에 따른 Reverse Twist 변화에 대한 연구

        김미숙,신승민,정연학,김향율,김서윤,이승희,Kim Mi Sook,Seen Seung Min,Jung Yeon Hak,Kim Hyang Yul,Kim Seo Yoon,Lee Seung Hee 한국전기전자재료학회 2006 전기전자재료학회논문지 Vol.19 No.2

        We studied on the reverse twist near the pixel edge depending on the rubbing direction for the fringe field switching (FFS) mode. Liquid crystal (LC) dynamic and the transmittance near the pixel edge, where the various field directions are generated, depend on the initial rubbing direction because the position of reverse twist is decided by the angle between the electric direction and the LC director at a bias voltage. For example, when the rubbing angle is $7^{\circ}$, the reverse twist appears on the bottom position of the right sharp comer of the pixel edge so that the reverse region exists far away from main active region. But, when the rubbing angle is $-7^{\circ}$, the reverse twist appears on the top position of the right sharp comer of the pixel edge, resulting that the region becomes more close to the main active area and the unstable disclination lines (DLs) easily intrude into the active region. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the reverse twist region far from the active region and it is possible by controlling the rubbing direction in the design of a pixel electrode.

      • 용혈이 Vitamin $B_{12}$ / Folic acid 검사 결과에 미치는 영향

        김미숙,조윤교,임도화,서소연,Kim, Mi-Sook,Cho, Youn-Kyo,Im, Do-Hw,Seo, So-Yeon 대한핵의학기술학회 2008 핵의학 기술 Vol.12 No.1

        배경: Vitamin $B_{12}$ 및 Folic acid는 모두 수용성 비타민의 일종으로 생체 내에서 보조 효소로서의 작용을 가지고 있지만 특히 세포핵의 DNA 합성에 관여하고 있다. 주로 거대 적아구성 빈혈의 감별 진단과 임신 중 엽산의 저장을 평가하기 위해 측정한다. 용혈 혈청은 혈구 중의 엽산과 비타민 $B_{12}$가 용출하기 때문에 사용할 수 없다고 알려져 있으나 수탁 검사기관인 본원의 특성상 이 내용을 충실히 따르기에는 어려운 경우가 있다. 이에 용혈의 정도가 검사 결과치에 어느 정도 영향을 미치는가에 대해 알아보고자 검사를 시행해 보았다. 방법: 용혈되지 않은 검체를 대조군으로 하고 기계적으로 용혈을 일으켜 용혈 정도에 따라 A, B, C그룹으로 분리하여 용혈 검체를 그룹별 각각 10개씩 준비한다. 경쟁반응 원리인 M사의 Vitamin $B_{12}$ [$^{57}Co$]/Folate [$^{125}I$] 시약으로 검사를 실시한다. 결과: Vitamin $B_{12}$는 검체의 용혈이 결과 값에 큰 영향을 미치지 않았다. 하지만 Folic acid의 경우에는 용혈의 정도에 따라 값이 증가 하였으며, 심하게 용혈 된 경우 모두 표준곡선의 최고치의 값(20 ng/ml 이상)을 확인할 수 있었다. 고찰: 수탁기관인 본원에서는 Vitamin $B_{12}$ 및 Folic acid 검사 의뢰 병원에 검체의 용혈이 검사 결과에 미치는 영향과 검체의 용혈을 막기 위해 채혈 시 주의할 점들을 홍보하고, 분리, 보관 시 세심한 주의를 기울여야 할 것이다. 위의 결과에서 보았듯이 용혈된 검체로 Folic acid검사를 해서는 안 되며 Vitamin $B_{12}$ 또한 결과 값에는 큰 영향을 미치지는 않지만 용혈에 주의할 필요가 있다. Purpose: Vitamin $B_{12}$ and folic acid are type of water-soluble vitamin and those work as a secondary vital enzyme, but especially those are involved in the nuclear DNA synthesis. Those are mainly measured in order to diagnose megaloblastic anemia and to assess the storage of folic acid during pregnancy. It is generally known that the hemolyzed serum is useless for folic acid and vitamin $B_{12}$, but it is not easy to abide by this information because our lab (Samkwang Medical Laboratories) is reference laboratory. We tested how much the extent of hemolyzed serum had influence on the results. Materials and Method: We performed the tests of vitamin $B_{12}$, folic acid. For the hemolysis effect study, we used 40 cases. According to the level of A, B and C groups, each group had 10 samples which were mechanically hemolyzed serum. Results: Hemolysis did not affect the vitamin $B_{12}$ results. However in case of folic acid, the value increased according to the degree of hemolysis. And severe hemolyzed cases had the highest value (greater than 20 ng/ml). Conclusions: Preventing the hemolysis, it has to be informed that blood-collecting, separation and storage are performed more carefully. As you see from the above results, hemolyzed serum is not proper for folic acid test, and hemolysis does not affect the results of vitamin $B_{12}$. However, for the more accurate results, it is necessary to avoid hemolysis.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        HCMV에 감염된 TBP-1 세포에서 세포간 부착분자-1 발현 촉진물질의 방출

        김미숙,이현아,이찬희,Kim, Mi-Suk,Yi, Hyun-Ah,Lee, Chan-Hee 한국미생물학회 2008 미생물학회지 Vol.44 No.2

        다양한 염증 질환을 유발하는 사람세포거대바이러스(Human cytomegalovirus: HCMV)는 단핵구 세포주인 THP-1 세포에서 염증반응의 중요한 매개체인 세포간부착분자-1(intercellular adhesion molecule: ICAM-1) 발현을 촉진한다. ICAM-1 발현은 자외선으로 불활화시킨 HCMV (UV-HCMV)에 의해서도 촉진되므로 이 과정에 HCMV 유전자발현은 꼭 필요하지는 않은 것 같다. HCMV에 감염된 THP-1 세포 배양액을 감염되지 않은 THP-1 세포에 처리하거나 공유하게 하였을 시 감염되지 않은 세포에서도 ICAM-1 발현이 증가하였다. 감염된 세포 배양액에 의한 ICAM-1 발현 증가는 $NF-{\kappa}B$ 경로를 거친다. UV-HCMV에 감염된 세포의 배양액은 ICAM-1 발현을 촉진시키지 못하였다. 따라서 HCMV에 의한 THP-1 세포에서 ICAM-1 발현 증가는 바이러스 유전자 발현을 필요로 하지 않지만, 감염된 세포에서 ICAM-1 발현을 촉진하는 물질을 분비하는 과정에는 바이러스 유전자 발현이 필요한 것으로 생각된다. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) stimulates the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-l) on the surface of monocytic THP-1 cells. Stimulation of ICAM-l did not require HCMV gene expression since UV-inactivated HCMV (UV-HCMV) was able to induce ICAM-l expression. ICAM-l expression was also stimulated in uninfected THP-l cells which were fed with culture supernatant of HCMV-infected THP-l cells. Co-culture experiment using trans-well insert supported that HCMV-infected THP-l cells secreted some cytokine(s) stimulating ICAM-l expression. The stimulation of ICAM-l by HCMV-infected cell culture supernatant appears to involve $NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway. Culture supernatant from THP-l cells infected with UV-HCMV, whose gene expression was abrogated, failed to stimulate ICAM-l expression on naive THP-l cells. Thus, HCMV gene expression seems to be required in secretion of cytokine(s) stimulating ICAM-l expression.

      • KCI등재후보

        낙동강 부영양화와 수질환경요인의 통계적 분석

        김미숙,정영륜,서의훈,송원섭,Kim, Mi-Suk,Chung, Young-Ryun,Suh, Euy-Hoon,Song, Won-Sup 한국조류학회(藻類) 2002 ALGAE Vol.17 No.2

        Influences of vrious environmental factors on the eutrophication of Nakdong River were analyzed statistically using water samples collected from 1 January, 1999, to 30 September, 2001 at Namji area. The relationships between the concentration of chlorophyll α (eutrophication index) and environmental factors and were analyzed to develop a statistical model which can predict the status of eutrophication. The concentation of chlorophyll α ranged from 66.2 mg · $m^{-3}$ to 70.8 mg · $m^{-3}$ during dry winter season and the average concentration during this study period was 35.5 mg · $m^{-3}$ Namji area of Nakdong River was in the hypereutrohic stage in terms of water quality. Stephanodiscus sp. and Aulacoseria granulata var. angustissima were dominant species during the witnter to spring time and summer to autumn period, respectively. Based on the correlation analysis and the analysis of variance between chlorophyll α concentration and environmental factors, significantly high positive relationships were found in the order of BOD> pH> COD > KMnO₄ consumption > DO > conductivity > alkalinity. In contrast to these factors, significantly negrative relationships were found as in the order of $PO₄^{3-}-P$ >water level>the rate of Namgang-dam discharge > NH₃-N> the rate of Andong-dam discharge> the rate of Hapchoen-dam discharge. Based on the factors analysis of environmental factors on the concentration of chlorophyll α, we obtained five factors as follows. The first factor included water level, pH, turbiditiy, conductivity, alkalinity and the rate of Namgang-dam discharge. The second factor included water temperature DO, NH₄+-N, NO₃- -N. The third factor included KMnO₄ consumption COD and BOD. The fourth factor included the rate of Andong-dam discharge, the rate of Hapcheon-dam discharge, and the rate of Imha-dam discharge. The final factor included T-N T-P and $PO₄^{3-}-P$ > concentration. We derived two statistica models that can predict the occurrence of eutrophication based on the factors by factor analysis, using regression analysis. The first model is the stepwise regression model whose independent variables are the factors produced by factor analysis : chl α (mg · $m^{-3}$ = 42.923+(18.637 factor 3) + (-17.147 factor 1) + (-12.095 factor 5) + (-4.828 factor 4). The second model is the alternative stepwise regression model whose independent variables are the sums of the standardized main component variables:chl α (mg · $m^{-3}$ = 37.295+(7.326 Zfactor 3) + (-2.704 Zfactor 1)+(-2.341 Zfactor 5).

      • SCOPUSSCIEKCI등재

        사람의 신경교종 세포주에서 아데노바이러스 벡터를 이용한 p16/INK4a 유전자 전달에 의한 종양성장 억제

        김미숙,권희충,강희석,박인철,이창훈,김창민,이춘택,홍석일,이승훈,Kim, Mi-Suk,Kwon, Hee-Chung,Kang, Hee-Seog,Park, In-Chul,Rhee, Chang-Hun,Kim, Chang-Min,Lee, Choon-Taek,Hong, Seok-Il,Lee, Seung-Hoon 대한신경외과학회 2000 Journal of Korean neurosurgical society Vol.29 No.4

        Objective : p16/INK4a, a kind of tumor suppressor genes, encodes a specific inhibitor of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. This prevents the association of CDK4 with cyclin D1, and subsequently inhibits phosphorylation of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein(pRb), thus preventing exit from the G1 phase. According to previous reports, over 50% of glioma tissue and 80% of glioma cell lines have been demonstrated inactivation of p16/INK4a gene. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recombinant adenovirus-p16 virus is a suitable candidate for gene replacement therapy in cases of glioma. Methods : Three human glioma cell lines(U251MG, U87MG and U373MG) that express mutant p16 protein were used. Replication-deficient adenovirus was utilized as an expression vector to transfer exogenous p16 cDNA into the cells ; control cells were infected with the Ad-${\beta}$-gal expressing ${\beta}$-galactosidase. To monitor gene transfer and the expression of exogenous genes, we used Western Blotting analysis. Flow cytometry studies of cellular DNA content were performed to determine the cell cycle phenotype of the glioma cells before and after treatment. Results : We showed here that restoration of p16/INK4a expression in p16 negative U87MG, U251MG and partially deleted U373MG by Ad-CMV-p16 induced growth suppression in vitro. Flow cytometric study revealed that Ad-CMV-p16 infected U87MG cells were arrested during the G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle. Expression of p16 transferred by Ad-CMV-p16 in glioma cells was highly efficient and maintained for more than seven days. Conclusions : Our results suggest that Ad-CMV-p16 gene therapy strategy is potentially useful and warrants further clinical investigation for the treatment of gliomas.

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