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      • The Ownership Structure of Major Chaebols: A Comparative Study

        김동운 한국사회경제학회 2021 한국사회경제학회 학술대회 자료집 Vol.2021 No.겨울

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        In 2019, the corporate governance of SK and LG Group was in sharp contrast to that of Samsung and Hyundai Motor Group: the former two chaebols were shaped by a fully-fledged holding company system while the latter two by a loosened interlocking ownership structure. From the illustrated ownership structure, it is easily to see that, in SK and LG, companies in square are connected between them by arrows , indicating ownership, in a simple and hierarchical way and in good order and, by contrast, that, in Samsung and Hyundai Motor, arrows are connected between companies in a rather complicated way and in seemingly confusing order. In SK and LG, almost all of member companies are organized into a holding company system that is headed by a holding company in square at the top (respectively, SK Corporation and LG Corporation), which, in tum, is governed by the largest shareholder and the Group Owner in oval just above the holding company (respectively, Tae-Won Choi and Gwang-Mo Koo). On the other hand, in Samsung and Hyundai Motor, there exists interlocking ownership between companies although it appears to be weak or loose. In Samsung, three companies play crucial roles: one company (Samsung Corporation), in square at the top , is governed by the largest shareholder and the Group Owner in oval just above the company (Jae-Yong Lee) while having some stakes in the other two (Samsung Life Insurance, Samsung Electronics), the former of which, in tum, has a stake in the latter. By comparison, in Hyundai Motor, typical interlocking ownership is formed in a circular way among three key companies (Hyundai Mobis, Hyundai Motor, Kia Motors), of which, in sequence, one is the largest shareholder in another; and, in the former two, the Group Owner in oval (Mong-Koo Chung) has some stakes.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재
      • 전문가 심층정보 - 돼지 생산성 향상을 위한 미생물 이용 기술

        김동운,Kim, Dong-Un 축산물품질평가원 2010 KAPE누리 Vol.164 No.-

        최근 돼지 생산성 향상, 항생제 대체, 친환경 축산을 위하여 미생물 이용 기술에 대한 수요가 증가되고 있는 가운데, 유익한 미생물을 이용하여 농가형 발효생균제를 제조 급여하여 돼지의 면역력 강화 및 생산성 향상기술을 보급코자 한다.

      • KCI등재후보

        소아 요로감염에서 배뇨성 방광 요도 조영술의 결정

        김동운,최응상,임인석,Kim, Dong-Woon,Choi, Eung-Sang,Lim, In-Seok 대한소아신장학회 2007 Childhood kidney diseases Vol.11 No.2

        목 적 : 본 연구에서는 소아에서의 연령과 성별, CRP, 그리고 혈액 내 백혈구 등의 독립적 요소들을 방사선학적 검사와 각각 비교평가하고 배뇨성방광 요도 조영술의 시행이 필요한지에 대하여 평가를 해보고자 한다. 방 법 : 본 연구에는 2002년 1월부터 2005년 1월까지 OO대부속병원 소아청소년과에서 $38^{\circ}C$ 이상의 발열을 주소로 내원하여 요로감염으로 처음 진단받은 98명이 포함되었다. 요로감염의 진단은 소변 배양 검사상 단일 균주가 105 CFU/mL 이상 자랐을 때로 정의하였으며, 신경학적 신장 기능이상이 보이는 환자들은 검사에서 제외하였다. 이들 모두에게 치료시작 전후의 발열기간을 기록하고 CRP, 백혈구 등을 검사하였으며, $^{99m}Tc$-DMSA 신장스캔과 복부-신장초음파, 퇴원 2근주 후 방광요로조영술 등을 시행하였다. 성별에 따른 방사선학적 이상의 빈도와의 관계는 chi-square test로 검정하였고, 연령에 따른 방사선학적 이상의 빈도와의 관계는 logistic regression model로 검정하였다. 방사선학적인 이상을 보인 환자군에서 진단당시의 발열기간, 백혈구, CRP 수치의 차이가 있는지를 알아보기 위하여 t-test를 사용하여 검증하였고 방사선 검사들을 chi-square test로 비교하여 양성간의 상관관계를 분석하였으며 유의 수준은 P<0.05로 하였다. 결 과 : 요로감염이 진단된 98명의 환아 중에서 52명이 남자 환자였고 46명이 여자 환자였다. 총98명의 환자들 중 배뇨성 방광 요도 조영술 검사상 이상소견을 보인 경우가 총18명이었고, 신장-복부초음파 결과에서 이상소견을 보인 경우는 총17명이었으며, $^{99m}Tc$-DMSA 신장 스캔에서 부분적 결손이나 미만성 섭취감소를 보인 경우는 총20명이었다. 각 연령과 성별에서의 방사선검사 결과들과의 상관관계는 통계학적으로 유의 한 차이를 보이지 않았다(Table 1, 2). 치료 전의 발열기간에서 신반흔을 보인 군이 음성인 군보다 발열기간이 길었다(Table 3). CRP, 백혈구는 방사선학적 이상소견이 있는 군에서 통계학적으로 유의하게 높았다(Table 4, 5). $^{99m}Tc$-DMSA 신장 스캔과 신초음파 검사의 양성유무는 배뇨성 방광 요도 조영술 검사의 양성유무와 통계적으로 유의한 상관관계를 보였다(Table 6, 7). 결 론 : 치료 전 발열기간, 입원 당시 백혈구, CRP에 기초한 임상적 평가는 첫 요로감염 질환에 걸린 환아들의 방광 요관 역류 여부를 예측하는데 유용하며, 추가적인 방사선학적 검사가 필요한지 에 대해 지침을 제공할 수 있다. 소아의 첫 요로감염시 초음파나 $^{99m}Tc$-DMSA 신장 스캔상에서 양성소견이 있을 경우 배뇨성 방광 요도 조영술 검사를 시행하는 것이 좋으며, 초음파와 $^{99m}Tc$-DMSA 신장 스캔상에서 양성소견이 없을 경우라도 CRP 또는 백혈구 등의 임상자료들을 평가하여 배뇨성 방광 요도 조영술 검사를 시행유무를 결정하는 것이 잔존하는 방광요관역류를 찾는데 도움이 될 것으로 생각된다. Purpose : We attempted to compare the independent factors such as age, sex, C-reactive protein(CRP), and white blood cell count(WBC) in children with radiologic studies and assess the necessity of performing voiding cystourethrography(VCUG). Method : 98 children who have been diagnosed their first time febrile urinary tract infection from Janurary 2002 to Januray 2005 were enrolled. In all patient, the duration of fever which occurred before and after treatment was recorded, and CRP, WBC, $^{99m}Tc$-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid($^{99m}Tc$-DMSA) renal scans, renal ultrasound and VCUG were analyzed. Results : Of the 98 children diagnosed with urinary tract infection(UTI), 52 were male and 46 were female. 18 had abnormalities in VCUG, 17 had abnormalities in kidney ultrasound, and 20 had partial defects or diffuse uptake decrease in $^{99m}Tc$-DMSA renal scans. There were no significant relationship between incidence of radiologic abnormalities and age. The risk of renal scar was significantly higher in children who had a longer febrile period before treatment than in those with shorter period. Both CRP and WBC were significantly elevated in children with the radiological abnormalities. A positive of $^{99m}Tc$-DMSA renal scans and renal ultrasound were highly associated with vesicoureteral reflux(VUR). Conclusion : If there are abnormalities in the kidney ultrasound and $^{99m}Tc$-DMSA renal scan of a child with initial UTI, a VCUG is recommended. Even in cases without abnormal findings in $^{99m}Tc$-DMSA renal scan and renal ultrasound, clinical data such as CRP and WBC should be assessed, and VCUG should be Performed for the undetected VUR.

      • KCI등재후보

        고혈압 임부에서 24 시간 활동 중 혈압 측정의 임상적 유용성

        김동운,김도형,고병성,전현정,배장환,조명찬,남기병,곽남주,정은환 대한내과학회 1998 대한내과학회지 Vol.55 No.1

        Objectives: In the third trimester hypertensive pregnancies, we would like to evaluate effects of white coat hypertension, severity of hypertension and diurnal variation of blood pressure on the fetal outcome by using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Methods: Hypertensives(n=50) and normotensives (n=14) in the third trimester of the pregnancy underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. We excluded hypertensives(n=5) who became pre-eclampsia patients. Hypertensives(n=45) were classified as white coat hypertensives(n=14, mean ambulatory blood pressure $lt;139/87mmHg) and sustained hyprtensives(n=31). Sustained hypertensives(n=31) were divided as moderate to severe hypertensives(n=5, systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥100mmHg) and mild hypertensives(n=26). Sustained hypertensives were also divided into two groups which had diurnal variation of blood pressure or not. To exclude effects of hypertension severity, effects of diurnal variation wane evaluated in hypertensives with similar mean arterial blood pressure. Gestational age, body weight, body weight for gestational age were used as parameters of the fetal outcome. Results : 1) The prevalence of white coat hypertension was 28%(14/50). 2) There were no significant differences in the fetal outcome between normotensives(n=14) and white coat hypertensives(n=14). 3) Body weight of fetus and body weight for gestational age in moderate to severe hypertensives(n=5) were less than those of mild hypertensives(n=26), but gestational age was not significantly different between two groups. 4) Body weight of fetus and body weight for gestational age in sustained hypertensives without diurnal variation(n=10) were less than those with diurnal variation(n=8), but gestational age was not significantly different between two groups. 5) All hypertensives who became pre-eclampsia (n=5) were severe hypertensives and had no diurnal variation of blood pressure. Conclusion: White coat hypertension in the third trimester was quite often and did not affect on the fetal outcome. The more severe hypertension and/or absence of diurnal variation of blood sure caused poor fetal outcome. Patients who became pre-eclampsia were severe hypertensives and had no diurnal variation of blood pressure. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring may have several roles in the antenatal management of hypertenison.

      • 노후 공동주택 재건축의 문제점 및 개선방안에 관한 연구 : 저층 · 고밀을 중심으로 Focused on the Low-Rise High-Density

        김동운,김상겸 대한건축학회 2000 대한건축학회 학술발표대회 논문집 - 계획계/구조계 Vol.20 No.1

        This study aims to improvement the reconstruction type of Multi-Family Housing focused on the Low-Rise High-Density in Taejon City. The High-Rise High-Density reconstruction type that prevails through the country has many problems in city area such as in the points of city function, environment of circumstance, poor view etc. This study reviews and analysis this problems and reveals the possibilities of low-rise high-density reconstruction type with balancing the both side of the economic and the improvement of housing environment through survey and enquetes.

      • KCI우수등재
      • 산란계에 대한 마늘 급여 결과

        김동운,김용곤,채현석,김석철,윤병선,안종남 한국영양사료학회 1998 韓國營養飼料學會誌 Vol.22 No.6

        산란계 기본사료 급여구(대조구)와 기본사료의 0.5%비율로 생마늘 급여구(T₁)그리고 생마늘 1.0%와 마늘 10%의 유기산 혼합구(T₂)를 처리구당 20수씩 6주칸 사육하여 실시하였다. 1일 산란율을 조사하였고, 계란 품질은 4℃에서 3주간 저장한 후 난중, H.U., 난각두깨, 난황색을 측정하였고, 혈액은 혈청을 분리하여 측정시 까지 -80℃에서 2주간 냉동 보관한 다음, 혈청과 난황 콜레스테롤를 측정하였다. 마늘 섭취에 의한 생체의 손실 여부를 조사하기 위하여 혈청을 통한 간장의 효소(GOT : AST)를 측정하였다. 대조구가 시험구보다 산란성적이 좋아 시험개시시의 산란율은 높았지만, 초기 이후의 산란율은 대조구보다 T₁에서 높았다(P$lt;0.05). 난중은 T₁과 대조구보다는 T₂에서 무거운 결과를 보였으며(P$lt;0.05), 난각두께도 대조구, T₁, T₂순으로 증가하였음을 보여주었다(P$lt;0.05). 난황색은 대조구, T₂, T₁순으로 증가하는 경향이었다. 계란의 신선도 유지는 대조구, T₁, T₂순으로 신선도 값이 증가하여 저장중인 계란에 대한 마늘의 항산화 효과가 관찰되었다. 혈청 콜레스테롤 농도는 마늘 첨가구가 대조구보다 낮은 경향을 나타내었으나, 난황 콜레스테롤 함량은 마늘 첨가구가 대조구보다는 유의적으로 감소하였다(P$lt;0.01). 간장의 손실정도를 나타내는 GOT(또는 AST)는 T₁의 유의한 증가로 간장이 손상되었음을 나타내었으나, 대조구와 마늘과 함께 유기산을 혼합한 T₂에서의 효소활성은 큰 차이가 없었다. A basic dietary was composed with mainly maize. Control group hens were feed basic dietary, T₁group hens were feed garlic 0.5% added to basic dietary, T₂group hens were feed garlic 1.0% and organic acid 10% of garlic added to basic dietary. After laying hens were spend adaptation period for 1 week, laying hens were divided into 3 groups(control, T₁, T₂) which each group was consisted of 20 hens and were housed for 6 weeks. Laying rate was examined daily. Egg weight, Haugh Unit(H.U), egg shell thickness and egg yolk colour were determined after at 4℃ for 3 weeks stored. Cholesterol contents of serum and egg yolk was assayed with Kit method. Serum were separated from blood samples immediately and stored until analysis at -80℃. The liver injure of hen ingested garlic ration was invested by GOT of serum. Laying rate of control group was higher than that of all treatment groups in Early-experiment, whereas laying rate of all treatment groups was higher than that of control in Post-experiment. Although egg weight of control group was heavier titan that of T₁group, however egg weight of T₂group was the heaviest than that of control group. Egg shell thickness was increased in both treatments. Egg yolk colour and H.U. were increased in order T₁group and T₂group and then control group showed low value, therefore garlic antimedication effect was observed in garlic addition groups. Except serum of T₁group, cholesterol contents of serum and egg yolk in all treatments lower than that of control group. The GOT of control group in serum is similar to T₂group, but T₁group was significantly high value which is impact liver damage.

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