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Purpose: Blepharoptosis can result from either congenital or acquired causes. Blow out fracture or facial bone fracture including blow out fracture can be one of the causes. Authors experienced 3 cases of severe blepharoptosis after blow out fracture treated only with observation after reduction of associated fracture. Methods: Reconstruction of orbital wall was conducted on all cases diagnosed as blow out fracture using 3 dimensional computed tomography, and conservative treatment was done on accompanying severe blepharoptosis. Results: At the time of injury, all cases showed severe blepharoptosis requiring frontalis muscle transfer for correction. But blepharoptosis was recovered in an average of 18 weeks without any surgical procedure except reconstruction of orbital wall. Conclusion: Once Blepharoptosis occurred after blow out fracture, thorough evaluation must be done at first. If definitive cause of blepahroptisis cannot be found as authors' cases, injury of oculomotor nerve may result in blepharoptosis. So, as for blepharoptosis after blow out fracture, conservative treatment following reconstruction of fractured orbital wall can be one of good management.
The welded unreinforced flange-welded web (WUF-W) connection is one of seven prequalified connections for special moment frames (SMF) specified in AISC 358-10 (2010). Previous studies reported that the cyclic behavior of WUF-W connections was strongly affected by weld access hole geometry, and some WUF-W connections did not satisfy the requirements for SMF connections. For investigating in detail the effect of access hole configurations on the cyclic behavior of WUF-W connections, this study conducts three dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses. This study shows that the seismic behavior of WUF-W connections are strongly affected by two configuration parameters, access hole slope and length of flat portion.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an aquatic exercise program on body composition and heart rate variability(HRV) in elderly women with obesity. The aquatic exercise program was conducted with women in their 70s~80s, who had a body fat of >30% and no special exercise experience, for 60 minutes per day, three times per week for 12 weeks in 50~70%THR. The following conclusions were obtained. First, the change of body composition before and after the aquatic exercise was analyzed. The exercise group showed a decrease in weight but it was not statistically significant. On the other hand, there was a significantly difference in the body fat(p<.001). Second, the change of HRV before and after the aquatic exercise was analyzed. The exercise group showed a statistically significant difference in TP(p<.001), LFlog(p<.01), and LF/HF(p<.001). HFlog was increased but not statistically significant. Based on the findings, the aquatic exercise program will contribute to the decreased activity of the sympathetic nerve, the increased activity of the parasympathetic nerve, and the balance between sympathetic nerve and parasympathetic nerve in elderly women who were increased in weight and body fat percentage and decreased in autonomic nervous functions.
본 논문에서는 세탁기용으로 사용될 영구자석형 릴럭턴스 동기전동기(permanent-magnet assisted reluctance synchronous motor : PMA-RSM)의 설계와 특성에 대해서 살펴본다. 제안된 PMA-RSM의 특성과 최대 토크 특성을 알아보기 위해서 유한 요소법(finite element method)을 이용 하였다. 저속 구간에서의 충분한 토크를 발생시키기 위해서 회전자의 구조는 릴럭턴스 토크를 만들어내는 돌극 구조와 회전자 내부의 공극에 영구자석을 삽입하는 구조로 구성되어 있다. 전형적인 자속 장벽형(Flux barrier type) 릴럭턴스 동기전동기(RSM : Reluctance Synchronous Motor)와 자속 장벽(Flux barrier)에 자석을 삽입한 경우에 발생되는 현상들에 대해서 비교 분석하고, 또한 제안된 PMA-RSM의 릴럭턴스 토크(reluctance torque)와 자석에 의한 자석 토크(magnetic alignment torque)가 서로 최대가 되는 시점을 시뮬레이션을 통하여 구하며, 그 결과를 이용하여 전동기의 특성, 평균토크 그리고 토크 리플에 대해서 유한 요소법을 통하여 살펴보았다. This paper examines the design and the performance of a PMA-RSM(permanent-magnet assisted reluctance synchronous motor) for washing machine. A FEM(finite element method) is used to analyze performance and maximum torque characteristic of the proposed PMA-RSM. The designed motor is a combination of salient poles, which is making reluctance torque, and permanent magnet which are located on the air-gap of rotor to get a enough torque during low speed resign. Typical flux barrier type reluctance synchronous motor and the effects of adding magnet into the flux barrier of the rotor of a PMA-RSM are compared and examined. Also the maximum torque point of the reluctance torque by reluctance and reaction torque by magnetic alignment torque, which is in barrier, of the proposed PMS-RSM are derived through simulation. Using this results, the characteristics analysis of a performance, an average torque and a torque ripple of flux barrier RSM and the proposed PMA-RSM are performed through FEM under the saturation effect respectively.