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          상징의 서술적 구도 : 존 스타인벡의 『분노의 포도』 를 중심으로 John Steinbeck`s The Grapes of Wrath

          김길중 한국현대영미소설학회 2002 현대영미소설 Vol.9 No.1

          A symbol may be defined as something which is itself and yet stands for or suggests something else. As one of the common rhetorical figures of speech, the proper use of it will enrich the language of a literary text, especially poetry. With the adjectival form of the word "symbolic", we may expand and modify its decorative function to mean all language motives and narrative strategies involving a textual imagination. Thus, poems like Blake's "The Sick Rose" are totally symbolic, and Conrad's Heart of Darkness and the Mississippi in Twain's Huckleberry Finn are very symbolic. The symbolic relates itself to a quality of imagination that runs counter to the realistic, the reportorial, the analytic, and the programmatic. The Grapes of Wrath (1939), the subject of this study, is usually considered to be a realistic or even naturalistic novel by the author who was mildly sympathetic with the proletarian cause in the thirties. Quite a few people who read the book at the time of its publication are even known to have believed its factual authenticity. Steinbeck's biography also testifies to his dependence on truthful material he had gathered in writing the exodus of the famished "Okies." On the level of fiction-making imagination, however, he is far more symbolic than realistic. Evidence includes the opening allegoric anecdote about a land turtle, the symbolically charged action of Rose of Sharon who feeds a starving stranger at the end of the book, the behaviors of main characters and the qualities of their yearnings, the biblical and other allusions including the Exodus, and so on. The symbolic dimension of the book may have created in some people an impression of political or esthetic inadequacy. More properly, however, it has its redeeming quality: Steinbeck's symbolic imagination restores him back to the American democratic tradition of Walt Whitman and others.

        • KCI등재

          Mesodermal Formation and Patterning during Ascidian Embryogenesis

          김길중,니시다히로키 한국발생생물학회 2002 발생과 생식 Vol.6 No.2

          원시적인 척삭동물인 멍게에서 초기 배 세포운명은 모성 세포질인자와 유도적 상호작용에 의하여 결정된다. 매우 단순한 구조를 하고 있는 멍게 올챙이형 유생의 주요한 중배엽 조직으로 척삭, 근육 및 간충직이 존재한다. 근육 세포의 형성은 세포의 자율적인 과정으로, 초기 배의 후부 가장자리에 국재하는 모성 macho-1 mRNA에 의하여 근육 세포의 운명이 결정된다. 이에 반하여, 내배엽 전구세포의 유도작용은 척삭과 간충직 세포의 운명결정에 있어서 중요한 역할 In ascidians, a primitive chordate, maternal cytoplasmic factors and inductive interactions are involved in the specification of cell fates in early embryos. The larval structure of ascidians is relatively simple, and the major mesodermal tissues of the tadpole larva are notochord, muscle, and mesenchyme. Formation of muscle cells is a cell-autonomous process, and localized maternal macho-l mRNA specify muscle fate in the posterior marginal zone of the early embryo. In contrast, inductive influence from endoderm precursors plays important roles in the specification of notochord and mesenchyme fates. FGF-Ras-MAPK signaling is involved In the induction of both tissues. The difference in responsiveness of the posterior mesenchyme and anterior notochord precursors to FGF signaling is caused by the presence or absence of intrinsic factors that inherited from the posterior-vegetal egg cytoplasm, respectively. In these inductions, directed signal polarizes the induced cells and promotes asymmetric cell divisions to produce two daughter cells with distinct fates.

        • KCI등재후보

          영어교육에서 텍스트의 의미 : 무엇을 왜 어떻게 가르칠 것인가

          김길중 서울대학교 2003 외국어교육연구 Vol.6 No.-

          This short essay is a slightly modified version of a presentation read at the annual Institute seminar held at SNU on the 5th of December to exchange views on the function of reading in foreign language education in Korea. It begins with the discussion of a need on the paπ of policy makers of English teaching to reassess and revise the dominantly pragmatic and instrumentalist philosophy particularly working in the pedagogy of reading in English. According to the revisionist review of the present writer, the guiding spirit of the 4-skill orientation has so far tended to overvalue the linguistic and communicative functions (or ’grammar’ as is termed here to contrast with the 'text’ that follows) at the cost of the human or readerly values carried by signifying textuality of the reading material. Language should and is fated to reflect and realize the lived experience of concrete and individualized people and society. English is a natural and cultural language that embraces a11 these cultural resourcefulness and expressiveness before it is a foreign language. Strategies of reading pedagogy ought to reflect this fundamental as well as human or value-oriented aspect of language despite the limited level of the language on the part of its leamers.

        • KCI등재후보

          붉은멍게(Halocynthia aurantium)의 배발생과 변태

          김길중 (사)한국해양생명과학회 2020 한국해양생명과학회지 Vol.5 No.2

          The ascidian Halocynthia aurantium (sea peach), which belongs to the phylum Chordata, is thought to be a valuable organism of aquaculture like H. roretzi (sea pineapple), but its biological characteristics such as development and ecology are not well known. In this study, in order to obtain basic data for H. aurantium farming, the development processes of H.aurantium inhabiting the east coast of Gangwon-do were investigated and compared with those of H. roretzi, a related species. As a result, the morphology and developmental stages of the fertilized eggs, embryos and larvae of H. aurantium were very similar to those of H. roretzi. Fertilized eggs of H. aurantium took about 42.1 hours to hatch at 11℃, almost similar to 40.9 hours of H. roretzi. The time required for larvae to metamorphose into juveniles after hatching was very similar between the two species. The hatched larvae of the two species became juveniles with oral and atrial siphons after 23 days at 11℃. Both types of embryos developed slowly in seawater at low temperatures and rapidly developed at high temperatures. Fertilized eggs of H. aurantium hatched in an average of 62.3 hours at 9℃, 42.1 hours at 11°C, and 36.3 hours at 13℃, whereas those of H. roretzi hatched in an average of 60.4 hours, 40.9 hours, and 35.2 hours. Most of H. aurantium embryos did not develop normally above 15℃, so it is thought that attention is needed in the seed production processes. 척삭동물문에 속하는 붉은멍게(Halocynthia aurantium)는 우렁쉥이와 같이 유용한 양식 품종으로 사료되지만, 발생과 생태 등 생물학적 특성에 대해 잘 알려지지 않았다. 본 연구에서는 붉은멍게 양식을 위한 기초자료를 얻기 위해 강원도 동해 연안에 서식하는 붉은멍게의 배발생을조사하여 근연종인 우렁쉥이와 비교하였다. 그 결과, 붉은멍게의 수정부터 난할기, 낭배기, 신경배기의 배아 및 올챙이형 유생의 발달 단계 및 형태가 우렁쉥이와 매우 유사하였다. 붉은멍게의 수정란은 수온 11℃에서 부화까지 약 42.1시간이 소요되어 우렁쉥이의 40.9시간과 거의유사하였다. 부화 후 어린개체로 변태하는 데 소요되는 시간도 두 종 사이에서 매우 유사하였다. 수온 11℃에서 부화한 두 종의 유생은 모두 약 23일이 경과해서 입수공과 출수공이 명확하게 구분되는 어린개체로 발생하였다. 수온 변화에 따른 발생 속도는 저온에서 느렸고 고온에서 빠른 결과를 나타냈다. 붉은멍게의 경우는 9℃에서 부화까지 평균 62.3시간, 11℃에서42.1시간, 13℃에서 36.3시간이 소요되었다. 우렁쉥이의 경우는 평균 60.4시간, 40.9시간, 35.2시간이 소요되었다. 붉은멍게 배아의 대부분은 수온 15℃ 이상에서 정상적으로 발생이 이루어지지 않아 종묘생산 과정에 주의가 필요한 것으로 사료된다.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재
        • 핵폐기물 처리시설의 안전성과 환경의식

          김길중,이상일 동국대학교 산업기술환경대학원 1998 산업기술논총 Vol.4 No.-

          원자력 발전은 전세계 전력생산의 16%를 차지하고 있으며 고갈되어 가고 있는 화석연료의 대체에너지로서의 역할을 담당하고 있다. 우리나라에서도 12기의 원전이 가동중이며 이로부터 발생하는 핵폐기물의 안전한 처리는 국가적 과제로 대두되어 왔다. 그러나 핵폐기물 처리장 설치에 대한 주민들의 강력한 반발로 인해 부지확보에 어려움을 겪고 있는 실정이다. 본 논문에서는 핵폐기물 처리시설에 대한 국민적 합의 도출을 위해 핵폐기물의 처리기법과 안전성 확보를 위한 제도적 장치의 현황을 파악하였다. 선진국의 사례에 비추어 볼 때 과학적 접근에 충실할 경우 핵폐기물 처리장의 안전성은 확보될 수 있는 것으로 나타났으며, 정부는 국민의 환경의식 전환과 국민적 합의 도출을 위해 제도적 장치의 보완과 지속적인 교육에 힘을 기울여야 할 것으로 나타났다. About 16% of the total electric power supply is generated by 440 nuclear power plants worldwide, and twelve of them are operating in Korea. Nuclear waste from electric power generation needs to be disposed of safely and Korea faces a nation-wide problem in finding a suitable site for permanent storage of nuclear waste. In this paper, we review the characteristics of nuclear waste, current practice of disposal as well as legal and social measures to ensure the safety. It turned out that the safety of a nuclear waste repository can be obtained if necessary scientific approaches are taken. It was also found out that the government needs to make various efforts in order to solve the problem; they include arranging institutional provisions to promote residents' well-being and educating them to change their environmental awareness.

        • KCI등재

          제왕절개술 후 발생한 폐색전증 1예

          김길중,박철훈,노덕영,김용욱,박병준,신화정,김태응,정재근 대한산부인과학회 2003 Obstetrics & Gynecology Science Vol.46 No.3

          임신과 산욕기는 정맥혈전증과 폐색전증이 발생할 수 있는 위험한 시기이고, 이 질환들은 임산부 사망의 주요 원인으로 알려져 있으며, 치료하지 않는 급성 폐색전증의 사망율은 30%에 이른다. 본원에서는 제왕 절개술 후 발생한 폐색전증을 폐관류스캔과 정맥조영술을 통하여 진단하여 약물 치료를 한 1예를 경험하였기에 문헌 고찰과 함께 보고하는 바이다. During the past 50 years, the maternal mortality ratio has decreased dramatically. The leading causes of maternal deaths were pulmonary embolism, the complications of the pregnancy-induced hypertension, hemorrhage, the complications of the ectopic pregnancy and infection. Pulmonary embolism is one of the most fetal maternal complications that abruptly happen and rapidly progress, and has been a major cause of maternal death recently. Early detection of pulmonary embolism is difficult, because there is not any specific clinical symptoms and signs. We have experienced a case of a fatal pulmonary embolism which was diagnosed by lung perfusion scan on postoperative 1 day after cesarean delivery and managed with heparin therapy. We report this case with a brief review of literatures.

        • KCI등재후보

          한국인 대학생 영어 학습자의 필요 욕구 분석: 사례 연구

          김길중,신문수,양현권,김진완 서울대학교 1999 외국어교육연구 Vol.2 No.-

          For a new direction of college English programs, this study is designed to analyze Korean university EFL leamer needs. With this goal, this study discusses the results of questionnaires provided for 405 students in the College of Education, Seoul National University. The study also discusses a new direction of desirable English programs on the basis of the needs assessment.

        • KCI등재
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