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이 연구는 실험용 쥐를 대상으로 운동에 따라 골격근에서 일어나는 세포고사 경로 중 내인성 경로와 외인성경로에 의해 이루어지는 세포고사의 신호기전을 확인하여 운동이 세포고사에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지에 대한 구명하는데 있다. 이를 위해 ICR계 수컷 흰쥐 20마리를 일주일의 적응기간을 거쳐 통제집단(CON: n=10)과 운동집단(EX: n=10)으로 배정하였다. 운동은 8주간 주 5회 실시하였고, 트레드밀 속도 16.4 m/min와 경사도 4%로 설정하여 40분간 지속적인 운동을 실시하였다. 세포고사의 신호 경로 중 내인성 경로에 대한 검증 결과 Bcl-2, Bax 단백질, 그리고 Bcl-2/ Bax ratio는 그룹간 통계적 유의성은 나타나지 않았다. 반면, 세포고사의 경로 중 외인성 경로에 대한 검증 결과 caspase-8 단백질의 발현은 운동집단이 통제집단보다 유의하게 낮은 것으로 나타났으며(p<0.05), 세포고사 억제 단백질인 HSP70 단백질 발현은 운동집단이 통제집단보다 높게 나타났다. 더욱이, 세포고사 최종인자인 caspase-3의 활성화는 이루어 지지 않은 것으로 관찰되었다. 따라서 세포사멸의 신호경로 중 내인성 경로에 작용하는 Bcl-2와 Bax보다는 외인성 경로인 caspase-8과 HSP70의 영향으로 caspase-3가 분할되지 못하여 세포고사가 일어나지 않은 것으로 사료된다. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. ICR-type white male mice were divided into a control group (CON: n=10) and an exercise training group (EX: n=10) after a 1 week adaptation period. EX performed treadmill running at 16.4 m/min with a 4% incline, 40 min/day and 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Cervical dislocation was performed at 48 hours after the last bout of exercise, after which gastrocnemius skeletal muscles were immediately collected. The results of verifying the intrinsic apoptosis pathway showed that there were no significant differences in Bcl-2, Bax, or the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 proteins between EX and CON. On the other hand, the results of verifying the extrinsic apoptosis pathway showed that caspase-8 proteins were significantly lower in EX than in CON (p<0.05). Apoptosis suppressing protein HSP70 was higher in EX than in CON. In addition, caspase-3, which is the final factor for apoptosis, was not activated. These results indicate that apoptosis did not develop since caspase-3 is non-cleaved by the effects of caspase-8 and HSP70 extrinsic pathways rather than Bcl-2 and Bax intrinsic pathways among signal pathways for apoptosis.
Recent studies indicate that there is an increased risk of amebic liver abscess among those infected with HIV, which is associated with cell-mediated immunosuppression. Although Entamoeba histolytica infection is common among HIV infected patients,only a few cases of amebic liver abscess with bilateral pleural effusion have been reported. We present a case of a 44-year-old man who presented with fever and right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Amebic liver abscess with bilateral pleural effusion was confirmed by serologic test, clinical symptoms, and radiological findings. HIV infection was incidentally diagnosed during treatment. The possibility of the presence of amebic liver abscess should be considered in HIV infected patients with space-occupying lesions in the liver, and HIV screening should strongly be recommended in patients with amebic liver abscess.
As a great deal of weight is being placed on terrestrial DMB service which do not lay too much burden of cost, satellite DMB operators are currently facing their turning point in which they need to secure newer and better quality contents for profitability. This research is to provide methodology for forming a special channel for 3D Animation based on the contents which consist of only 3D Animation, and for maximizing users’ interest. This research also examines the concomitant solution and investigates an operating plan for contents as a business strategy model. This research shows that, with regard to the demand for domestic 3D contents, there has been a growing interest in game, animation and applied contents, and those fields are actually making a high added value. The market scale for the animation industry is gradually being enlarged all over the world, and its demand is also ever growing enormously. In consideration of the transition of 3D Animation into DMB contents, the formation of channel and the cooperative contents through program strategies and strategic coalition can be suggested, and great importance should be placed on this to make as a business model. One advantage of this relies on the fact that demanders interested in 3D Animation are also the main demanders of DMB contents. Thus, we need to spread the recognition that 3D animation and application with their dilatability as an original source are the contents aiming at their unification. On the basis of this basic identification, we can enlarge it to all areas of additional service that the keyword ‘3D Animation’ can make up. Throughout this research, the main aim was to judge that as today’s media trends are changing to personal adjusting or participating contents, DMB – combined media of communication and broadcasting – is appropriate as the root for the united media, and to attempt to find its way through. Furthermore, this research provided the foundation to promote the study for united contents by using the keyword ‘3D Animation’.