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Balance between bone-resorbing osteoclats and bone-forming osteoblasts is important in bone homeostasis. In particular, increased osteoclast formation and activity are responsible for bone diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal disease. Natural metabolites of plants have recently received much attention as lead compounds for the development of novel therapeutic strategy. The purpose of this study was to search the natural products to inhibition osteoclast differentiation. Water extract of papaya significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose dependent manner. However, water extract of papaya did not affect cytotoxicity when compared with control. Water extract of papaya inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK induced by RANKL. The mRNA expression of c-Fos, NFATcl, TRAP and OSCAR induced by RANKL was inhibited by water extract of papaya treatment. Also, water extract of papaya suppressed the protein expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 in BMMs treated with RANKL. Taken together, these results suggest that papaya may be a useful drug in the treatment of bone-related disease. 뼈을 흡수하는 뼈파괴세포와 뼈를 형성하는 뼈모세포 사 이의 조화는 뼈 항상성에 중요하다. 특히, 뼈파괴세포 형성 과 활성의 증가는 뼈엉성증, 류마티스 관절염, 치주염과 같 은 뼈 질환을 야기한다. 식물의 천연물질은 새로운 치료제 개발을 위해 많은 관심을 받고 있다. 본 연구의 목적은 뼈파 괴세포의 분화를 억제하는 천연물질의 연구이다. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)에 의해서 포 식세포에서 뼈파괴세포로의 분화는 모과 물 추출물의 농도 증감에 따라 억제되었다. 그러나 모과 물 추출물은 대조군 과 비교했을 때 세포독성은 검출되지 않았다. 모과 물 추출 물은 RANKL에 의해 유도되는 p38과 JNK의 인산화를 억 제하였다. RANKL에 의해 유도되는 c-Fos, NFATc1, TRAP, OSCAR mRNA는 모과 물 추출물에 의해 억제되었으며 또 한, c-Fos와 NFATc1 단백질의 발현도 모과 물 추출물에 의 해 억제되었다. 이들의 결과로 모과가 뼈 질환 치료에 유용 한 치료제로 이용될 수 있을 것이라 생각된다.
Although pruritus is the critical symptom of atopic dermatitis that profoundly affect the patients’ quality of life, controlling and management of prurirtus still remains as unmet needs mainly due to the distinctive multifactorial pathogenesis of pruritus in atopic dermatitis. Based on the distinct feature of atopic dermatitis that psychological state of patients substantially influence on the intensity of pruritus, various psychotropic drugs have been used in clinic to relieve pruritus of atopic dermatitis patients. Only several psychotropic drugs were reported to show real antipruritic effects in atopic dermatitis patients including naltrexone, doxepin,trimipramine, bupropion, tandospirone, paroxetine and fluvoxamine. However, the precise mechanisms of antipruritic effect of these psychotropic drugs are still unclear. In human skin, serotonin receptors and serotonin transporter protein are expressed on skin cells such as keratinocytes, melanocytes, dermal fibroblasts, mast cells, T cells, natural killer cells, langerhans cells, and sensory nerve endings. It is noteworthy that serotonergic drugs, as well as serotonin itself, showed immune-modulating effect. Fenfluramine, fluoxetine and 2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine significantly decreased lymphocyte proliferation. It is still questionable whether these serotonergic drugs exert the immunosuppressive effects via serotonin receptor or serotonin transporter. All these clinical and experimental reports suggest the possibility that antipruritic effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in atopic dermatitis patients might be at least partly due to their suppressive effect on T cells. Further studies should be conducted to elucidate the precise mechanism of neuroimmunological interaction in pruritus of atopic dermatitis.
본고의 목적은 일본인 학습자에게 효율적인 한국어 연결어미 ‘-아/어서’와 ‘-고’에 대한 학습방안을 모색하는 데 있다. 먼저 한국어 연결어미 ‘-아/어서’와 ‘-고’에 대응하는 일본어 접속조사 ‘-て’의 의미 용법을 한일 대조의 입장에서 살펴보았다. 일본어의 ‘-て’의 용법을 분석한 결과, 순서, 나열, 수단․방법, 원인․이유, 역접 등 거의 모든 연결 관계에 걸쳐서 나타났다. 이에 오류의 원인을 과잉일반화와 모국어의 간섭에 주안점을 두고 학습자의 오류양상을 형태상의 시제오류와 의미상의 대치오류로 분류하였다. 시제오류에서는 ‘-ので’의 간섭으로 보고 반복적 활용연습에 초점을 두고 학습방안을 제시하였다. 대치오류에서는 ‘-て’의 과잉일반화로 ‘-아/어서’와 ‘-고’에 대치되는것으로 보고 초급에서 중점으로 다루는 순차성과 수단 방법의 용법으로 범위를 제한하여 교수 학습방안을 제시하였다. The purpose of the study was to grope a learning plan for ‘-아/어서(A/Eoseo)’ and ‘-고(Ko)’, a Korean connective ending efficient to Japanese learners. First of all, the study examined the meaning and use of ‘-て’, a Japanese conjunction corresponding to ‘-아/어서(A/Eoseo)’ and ‘-고(Ko)’, a Korean connective ending, in the position of contrast between Korean and Japanese. As a result of analyzing on the use of ‘-て’ in Japanese language, it appeared over almost all connective relations such as order, arrangement, means, method, cause, reason and adversative conjunction. The study divided learners’ error aspects into tense error in form and replacement error in meaning by placing emphasis on overgeneralization and interference of mother tongue as a cause of errors. In tense error, the study suggested a learning plan by putting a focus on repetitive utility practice, regarding it to be interference of ‘-ので’. In replacement error, the study suggested a teaching-learning plan by limiting its range in the usage of order and means/method placing emphasis on elementary grade, regarding that it was replaced with ‘-아/어서(A/Eoseo)’ and ‘-고(Ko)’ as an overgeneralization of ‘-て’.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed.
Purpose: The single-radius design of the knee implant was introduced to improve the results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by reducing maximum extensor forces, and it also represents more physiologic quadriceps force pattern, which could have a positive effect on knee function after TKA. We studied mid-term results of single-radius designed cruciate retaining (CR) TKA.Materials and Methods: We analyzed the functional improvement and radiological osteolytic pattern after TKA using the single-radius Scorpio CR prosthesis. TKA was performed on 102 knees. The mean follow-up period was 73.8 months. For clinical assessment, the range of motion (ROM), Harris hip score, and functional outcome score were obtained preoperatively and at last follow-up.Results: The average ROM was 100.2o preoperatively and 121.7o at last follow-up. The average knee score was 59.2 points preoperatively and 92.9 points at last follow-up. The average functional outcome score was improved from 51.9 points preoperatively to 85.4 points at last follow-up. Radiolucency was observed in four knees but all were non-progressive lesions smaller than 2 mm.Conclusions: The clinical outcome of TKA using the single-radius CR prosthesis was good during the mid-term follow-up and the incidence of osteolysis was very rare.
Kojic acid is a fungal metabolite widely used in medicinal and cosmetic formulations as a skin whiteningagent. The activity of kojic acid is known to arise primarily from suppressing tyrosinase activity. Althoughkojic acid is effective in treating hyperpigmentation disorders in human clinical studies, it only shows weakantimelanogenic activity in mono-cultured human primary melanocytes, suggesting that there exists anotherpharmacological mechanism for in vivo activity of kojic acid. In the present study, we used primary humanepidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes co-culture system to elucidate the mechanisms of skin whiteningactivity of kojic acid. We used a newly developed flow cytometric method to analyze the counts of livemelanocytes and keratinocytes separately. When cultured without kojic acid, the proliferation of melanocytesco-cultured with keratinocytes was greatly enhanced compared to that of mono-cultured melanocytes. Onthe other hand, we found that kojic acid significantly reduced the proliferation of both melanocytes andkeratinocytes at 100~200 μM in co-culture system, although kojic acid did not reduce the proliferation ofmono-cultured melanocytes nor mono-cultured keratinocytes at the same concentration. These resultssuggest that kojic acid might suppress the expression of some growth factors produced by melanocytesor keratinocytes in co-culture system, resulting in reduced proliferation of melanocytes. In summary, themechanisms of the clinical skin whitening activity of kojic acid might include the suppression of melanocyteproliferation as well as the already known activity of tyrosinase suppression. It suggests that a cross-talkbetween melanocytes and keratinocytes is indispensable to the pharmacological mechanisms of clinicallyeffective dermatological drugs.