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김경훈 ( Kyunghoon Kim ),박상오 ( Sang O Park ),김종원 ( Jong Won Kim ),이경룡 ( Kyeong Ryong Lee ),홍대영 ( Dae Young Hong ),백광제 ( Kwang Je Baek ),김신영 ( Sin Young Kim ),김진용 ( Jin Yong Kim ) 대한응급의학회 2018 大韓應急醫學會誌 Vol.29 No.4
Objective: This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), Ottawa subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) rule and EMERALD (Emergency Medicine, Registry Analysis, Learning and Diagnosis) SAH rule for predicting SAH in patients with acute headache. Methods: This clinical retrospective study was conducted at an urban emergency department between January 2008 and December 2017. Alert, neurologically intact adult patients with acute headache were included. All data were drawn from electrical medical charts. The Ottawa SAH rule (positive if any of age ≥40, neck pain, loss of consciousness, onset during exertion, thunderclap headache, and neck stiffness), EMERALD SAH rule (positive if any of systolic blood pressure >150 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg, serum glucose >115 mg/dL, or serum potassium < 3.9 mEq/L) and NLR were assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of these tools for detecting or ruling out SAH was calculated. Results: Among the 1,230 patients enrolled in this study, 299 (24.3%) were diagnosed with SAH. To predict SAH, the Ottawa SAH rule offered 100% sensitivity but 31.6% specificity. Applying the EMERALD SAH rule to patients positive for the Ottawa SAH rule led to 92.6% sensitivity and 48.0% specificity. As the NLR alone showed less efficacy with the area under curve of 0.696 by receiver operating analysis, NLR ( >2.1) was added to the last step to have achieve 99.0% sensitivity and 56.7% specificity. Conclusion: The stepwise application of the Ottawa, EMERALD SAH rule, and NLR increased the specificity compared to each application. On the other hand, further studies will be needed to increase the sensitivity.
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As a result of the continuous growth since the 1960s, many cities of the Republic of Korea are suffering from deterioration of the buildings. On account of the issue, current government designated Urban Regeneration New Deal as a national policy and expected to solve various urban issues, but, even with the 10 trillion won-budgets every year, the ability of housing supply is insignificant. To supplement current national policies and investigate for alternative project models, this paper conducted the following purposes. First, to confirm the needs of alternative project models, it conducted literature review about current states of urban improvement and urban regeneration projects. Second, it operated in-depth interview on the experts to derive conceptual models in order to integrate urban regeneration and urban improvement. Finally, it applied derived models on the designated project area. This study has significances that it suggested new integrated models of urban regeneration and urban improvement. Our findings will lead to provide another insight on potential alternatives to solve the issue of urban deterioration.
The collective behavior of bacteria plays an important role in the biofilm development. In this study, fluidic properties of the biofilms formed in Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis) colonies were compared by visualizing 200-nm fluorescent beads which were initially embedded in the agar plate and distributed spontaneously on the upper surface of the growing colonies. Vortical flow patterns near the edge of the colony were observed clearly by tracking of the beads moving in the biofilm of the B.subtilis colony, whereas there was no movement of the beads in the E.coli colony. Further analysis with a cross-correlation method revealed the detailed velocity vector field of the thin biofilm surrounding the B.subtilis cells. The present study should be a first step to find the effect of the fluidic biofilm on the growth and the swarming dynamics of bacteria, and to uncover a novel physical factor that regulates bacterial cell physiology.
이 연구의 목적은 중학교 1학년 학생들의 영어 학습의 문제점들을 확인하고 혼합형 학습을 통해 영어 능력을 향상시키는 것이다. 이를 위해 실험집단은 13주 동안 혼합형 학습을 진행하였다. 그 결과를 분석하기 위해 영어 관련 20문제를 출제하여 실험하였다. 자료 분석은 통계 프로그램인 SPSS 23.0의 대응 표본 t 검증을 진행하였다. 그 결과 첫 번째 경우에는 사전평가보다 사후평가의 점수가 유의미하게 더 높았다. 또한, 학생들의 영어 숙달도에 따른 검사에서는 상위, 중위, 집단은 영어 능력이 향상되었으나 하위 집단은 하향되었음을 알 수 있었다. 두 번째, 혼합형 수업에 대한 만족도와 흥미도에 있어서는 참여 학생들의 높은 만족도와 흥미도를 보였다. 이러한 연구 결과로 볼 때 혼합형 학습을 적용한 영어 수업 학생들의 영어 능력향상에 효과가 있다는 것을 알 수 있었다. The purpose of this study is to research middle school the first grade students' English problems and to suggest how to improve their English competence through the Blended Learning. The experimental group had been taught through Blended learning for 13 weeks. The data needed for this study was obtained by the test paper with 20 questions about the English. The data analyzing method was the response sample t-test through the statistics program SPSS 23.0. The results are as follows. First, the mean score for the post-test was significant higher than that of pre-test. Also, it was found that there were significant improving in the high, intermediate group, but low group was level down the mean score. Second, most of the students who were taught by Blended Learning in English activity responded that they were interested in and satisfied with the lesson. From the results of this study, we found that the use of Blended Learning was effective in improving the middle school students' English competence.
이 연구의 목적은 중학교 학생들의 영어 독해에 대한 문제점들을 확인하고 플립러닝을 통해 영어 독해 능력을 향상하는 것이다. 이를 위해 실험집단은 12주 동안 플립러닝을 활용하여 수업을 진행하였다. 이 결과를 분석하기 위해 독해관련 문제 20문제를 사용하였다. 자료 분석은 통계프로그램인 SPSS 21.0의 독립표본 t검증을 실시하였다. 그 결과 첫 번째 실험집단과 통계집단의 경우는 실험집단의 성적이 더 높은 것을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 두 번째 학생들의 능숙도에 따른 성취도 검사에는 실험집단의 중·하위집단의 성적이 통제집단의 중·하위 집단보다 더 높은 성적이 나왔다. 이러한 연구 결과로 볼 때 플립러닝을 활용한 영어 독해 수업은 학생들의 영어 독해능력 향상에 효과가 있다는 것을 알 수 있었다. The purpose of this study is to research middle school students' English reading problems and to suggest how to improve their English reading ability through the Flipped Learning. The experimental group had been taught through Flipped Learning for 12 weeks. The data needed for this study was obtained by the test paper with 20 questions about the English reading. The data analyzing method were the t-test through the statistics program SPSS 21.0. The result are as follows. First, the mean score for the experimental group was significant higher than that of control group. Second, it was found that there were significant differences in the intermediate and low levels of English proficiency. From the results of this study, we found that the use of Flipped Learning was more effective in improving the students' English reading ability than the use of the traditional English lesson.
The purpose of this study is to research middle school students’ English writing problems and to suggest how to improve their English writing competence through the use of the English diary. The experimental group had been taught through controlled writing, guided writing and free writing for 12 weeks. The data needed for this study were obtained using a test paper with 20 questions assessing the students’ English writing competence. The data were analyzed using the t-test. The result are as follows. First, the mean score for the experimental group was significant higher than that of the control group. Second, it was found that there were significant differences between the students with intermediate and low levels of English proficiency. Third, most of the students who were taught writing through the diary writing activity responded that they were more interested in and more satisfied with the writing lessons than the students in the control group.
The main focus of this paper is CMOS programmable gain amplifier (PGA) with DC offset cancellation circuit designs for RF front-end Mobile TV tuners. The proposed PGA is to be operated in 145~1492 ㎒ L-Band for direct conversion system and made for purpose of reducing of layout area. The proposed PGA circuit introduced in this paper has a dynamic range of 40 ㏈ with 2.5 ㏈ gain steps and can operate up to 2 ㎒ dissipating 13.36 ㎽ from a single 3.3V supply. The structures have been fabricated in TSMC 0.18㎛ Technology.