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      • KCI등재후보

        앉고 일어서기 동작에서 점진적 체중 이동을 이용한 시각적 되먹임 훈련이 만성 편마비 환자의 균형 및 보행능력에 미치는 영향

        김경환,박성훈,김형민,박노욱,김다연,Kim, Kyung-hwan,Park, Sung-hoon,Kim, Hyung-min,Pak, Noh-wook,Kim, Da-yeon 대한고유수용성신경근촉진법학회 2017 PNF and Movement Vol.15 No.1

        Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of visual feedback training-for gradual weight shift in sit-to-stand training-on the balance and walking abilities of chronic hemiplegia patients. Methods: Twenty patients with chronic hemiplegia volunteered to participate in this study. The experimental group received visual feedback for gradual weight shift in the sit-to-stand training, while the contrast group followed the standard process for the sit-to-stand training. The evaluation of the balance and walking ability was conducted with the functional reach test (FRT), Berg balance scale (BBS), five time sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test, timed up and go (TUG) test, 10 m walk test (10MWT), balancia, activities-specific balance confidence (ABC) scale, and falls efficacy scale (FES). Results: In the results before and after intervention, there was a significant difference in TUG, 10MWT, ABC, and FES in the visual feedback training group (p < 0.05). In the control group, there was a significant difference in the 10MWT and ABC (p < 0.05). Also, in the evaluation of the postural fluctuations, the control group data showed a significant increase in Covar. The visual feedback group showed a significant difference in the W average. Conclusion: The visual feedback training group showed some improvement in terms balance and walking ability and on the ABC scale and FES. Therefore, if the diagonal progressive weight bearing exercise is combined with the various patterns and basic principles of PNF, it may be a more efficient intervention method.

      • KCI등재

        고양지역 두 병원에서의 약물 중독 양상

        김경환,박준석,신동운,노준영,김혜진,구홍두,조진경,김아진,Kim Kyung-Hwan,Park Jun-Soek,Shin Dong-Wun,Rho Jun-Young,Kim Hey-Jin,Gu Hong-Du,Cho Jin-Kyung,Kim Ah-Jin 대한임상독성학회 2006 대한임상독성학회지 Vol.4 No.1

        Purpose: In the year of 2005, it enforced the basic study for establishing program of Poison Control Center by National Institute of Toxicologic Research. The object of our survey is to analyze the characteristics of intoxication from the City of Goyang by same protocol. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of medical records of the intoxication patient in the two hospitals of the Goyang from 2004 June 1st to 2005 May 31th. The investigation protocol applied the TESS report form which was used from the Basic study for establishing program of Poison Control Center. Results: The intoxication patients were total 269 persons, the patients of A hospital were 184 persons, B hospital were 185 persons. The most common intoxication materials were medicines, in afterwords it was an agricultural chemical. The most common place of intoxication was the home. The intentional suicidal attempts in the reason of intoxication were 51.2%. The rate of the patients who discharges from the emergency department was 50.4% and death rate was 4.3%. Conclusion: We concluded that the continuous and systemic report and analysis should be accomplished from the Goyang area.

      • KCI등재

        CPM Bar Chart 기법을 활용한 일정계획

        김경환,김수유,김재준,Kim Kyung-Hwan,Kim Soo-Yoo,Kim Jae-Jun 한국건설관리학회 2004 한국건설관리학회 논문집 Vol.5 No.5

        본 연구에서는 바차트(bar chart) 기법과 CPM 기법의 장점을 결합한 CPM bar chart(CBC) 기법을 제시한다. CBC는 기존의 fenced bar chart(FBC)의 장점을 유지하면서 단점을 보완한 것으로, 작업 관계를 나타내는 fence에 방향성을 부여함으로써, 기존 FBC에서 상당한 혼란을 유발하는 fence의 분리과정 없이 작업들의 관계를 표현할 수 있다. 또한, fence의 분리를 파악하기 위해 더미작업(dummy activity)을 확인하는 과정이 생략되어 보다 손쉽게 작성할 수 있는 장점도 있다. 바차트의 간결성을 유지하면서 CPM의 네트워크 논리 표현이 가능해짐에 따라, CBC는 다양한 프로젝트 참여자들 간의 원활한 의사소통에 기여하리라 예상된다. 또한, resource constrained scheduling, resource leveling, 작업 분리가 고려된 일정 조정, 공기 지연 분석 등의 CPM 기법에 기초한 다양한 일정 계획 및 관리에도 적용이 용이하여, 실무뿐만이 아니라 공정관리 교육과정에서도 활용성이 높으리라 기대된다. This paper proposes the CPM bar chart (CBC), a hybrid of the bar chart and the critical pad method (CPM). The CBC overcomes shortages of the fenced bar chart, while still keeping advantages. The fence with direction is applied instead of the broken fence, which triggers considerable problems to identify and apply in the fenced bar chart. In addition, the notorious task to find dummy activities is no longer required. Upon the benefits of simplicity in the bar chart and logical work sequence in the CPM network. the CBC provides a relatively easy way to create and understand a schedule, thus improving communication quality between project participants. With the advantages, the CBC can also be effectively applied to various scheduling techniques such as resource constrained scheduling, resource leveling, scheduling with activity split, delay impact analysis, etc.

      • KCI등재

        일개 병원에서의 일산화탄소 중독증으로 내원한 환자에 대한 분석

        김경환,김아진,신동운,노준영,Kim Kyung Hwan,Kim Ah Jin,Shin Dong Wun,Rho Jun Young 대한임상독성학회 2005 대한임상독성학회지 Vol.3 No.1

        Purpose: The frequency of carbon monoxide poisoning has been decreased in the interior of the Korea. But occasionally it is occurred and the risk of exposure is high in working place so far. Because of the characteristics of gas, the detection of exposure and poisoning could be delayed and fatality is high. We should apprehend of carbon monoxide poisoning. So we would report analysis of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: A retrospective review of CO poisoned patients visited emergency department from January 2000 to December 2004 was conducted. Results: 24 patients were enrolled. Their average of age was $37.6\pm20.9$ years old and COHb was $19.4\pm13.32\%$. The blood level of initial COHb and mental status on arrival were not correlated each other. The blood level of initial COHb and loss of consciousness were not correlated, too. Initial electrocardiography (EKG) was not correlated with cardiac enzymes such as CK-MB and troponin I. But base excess was correlated with mental status on arrival and complication such as rhabdomyolysis. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was correlated with base excess and mental status on arrival. Conclusion: The clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning are nonspecific. For proper diagnosis, it is important that we should consider patient's environment and take patient's history carefully. The blood level of initial COHb does not reflect severity of poisoning accurately. So We should determine the treatment of choice depending on patient's status.

      • KCI등재

        개선된 자원 평준화 기법을 활용한 적정 공기산정 방안

        김경환,윤영상,김재준,Kim Kyung-Hwan,Yoon Yung-Sang,Kim Jae-Jun 한국건설관리학회 2004 한국건설관리학회 논문집 Vol.5 No.5

        건설프로젝트는 일정한 기간 동안 주어진 목표를 수행하기 위한 작업들의 모임이라 정의할 수 있으며, 이를 위해서는 필요한 자원의 효율적 계획 및 관리가 필요하고, 이때 자원배당 및 자원평준화 기법이 활용된다. 하지만 자원제약이 있는 자원배당과 공기 제한이 있는 자원평준화 방법은 하나의 프로젝트에 개별적으로 적용되고 있어 전체 프로젝트의 공기와 효율적 자원이용 측면에서 적정화하기는 어렵다. 따라서 본 연구는 자원 평준화 방법의 Minimum Moment Algorithm 개념을 확대$\cdot$적용하여 적정 자원이용 및 공사기간을 산출하고자 한다. 이때 자원 활용의 상태를 나타내는 5가지 지표가 사용되며, 이들간의 중요도를 파악하기 위해 공정전문가를 대상으로 설문조사를 실시하였다. 마지막으로 가상 프로젝트의 적용을 통해 본 모형의 적용 가능성을 검증하고자 하였다. Since a construction project is a series of works that utilizes resources to accomplish the project goal for a given time period, efficient resource management is a prerequisite for the success of the project. Two major areas of resource management are resource constrained scheduling focusing on the limited resource availability and resource leveling focusing on smoothing resource usage pattern on the fixed project completion time. It is not available, however, to apply both techniques to a project at the same time. This paper proposes a model to enhance the minimum moment algorithm of resource leveling, aiming to find an efficient usage of resources and an appropriate project completion time. A survey was performed to evaluate the major five factors in the model. A case study demonstrates the value of the proposed resource leveling technique.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        알루미늄 엣칭부산물을 첨가한 CPE 고무재료의 난연성 및 내열성 연구

        김경환,이창섭,Kim, Kyung Hwan,Lee, Chang Seop 대한화학회 2001 대한화학회지 Vol.45 No.4

        자동차 Oil cooler용 호스를 구성하는 클로로폴리에틸렌(CPE) 고무재료의 내열 및 난연성을 향상시키기 위하여 수산화알루미늄을 내열 및 난연제로 제조한 배합고무의 가황틀성, 물리적 성질, 내열성, 난연성을 조사하였으며, 실험결과로부터 고무와 난연제의 최적배합조건을 도출하였다. 고무시편을 제조하는데 사용된 고무재료는 화학적 내식성과 내한성이 우수하면서도 가격이 저렴한 클로로폴리에틸렌 고무를 사용하였으며, 내열 및 난연제로서는 알루미늄 표면 처리과정에서 발생되는 에칭부산물을 분쇄와 정제를 거쳐 가공한 수산화알루미늄을 사용하였고, 분말은 XRD(X-ray diffraction), PSA(Particle Size Analysis), SEM(Scanning Electron Microscopy) 및 ICP-AES(Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy)로 입자의 상, 크기, 분포, 형태 및 성분을 분석한 후 CPE 고무재료와 0∼80 phr범위에서 훈련하였다. CPE배합 고무의 경도, 인장강도, 신장율, 인장응력 및 열적특성을 분석한 결과, 고무재료규격을 초과하지 않는 범위 내에서 최대의 내열 및 난연효과를 주는 수산화알루미늄의 첨가량은 40 phr로 나타났으며, 이 배합비에서 클로로폴리에틸렌의 난연성은 3배 향상되었다. Aluminum Hydroxide was employed as a thermal retardent and flame retardent for Chloropolyethylene (CPE) rubbery materials which is the construction material of automotive oil cooler hose. and then cure characteristics, physical properties, thermal resistance and flame retardation of compounded rubber were investigated, and optimum mixing conditions of rubber and flame retarding agent were deduced from the experimental results. CPE rubber material which has excellent properties of chemical corrosion resistance and cold resistance and inexpensive in price was used to prepare rubber specimen. The by-product of ething, produced from the process of surface treatment of aluminum was processed to aluminum hydroxide via crushing and purification, which is characterized by XRD, PSA, SEM and ICP-AES techniques in terms of phase, size, distribution, morphology and components of particles and then mixed to CPE rubber materials in the range of 0~80 phr. Hardness, tensile strength, elongation and thermal properties of compounded rubber specimens were tested. The optimum mixing ratio of rubber to additives to give maximum effect on thermal resistance and flame retardation, within the range of tolerable specification for rubber materials, was determined to be 40 phr. The flame retardation of CPE rubber materials was found to be increased by 5 times at this mixing ratio.

      • X선검진시의 촬영조건과 피폭선량 평가에 대한 조사

        김경환,이진규,Kim Kyung Hwan,Lee Jin Kyu 대한방사선사협회 2001 대한방사선사협회지 Vol.27 No.2

        At the investigations with 200 institutes for analysis of factor associated with radiographic conditions reduction of patient exposure dose during X-ray diagnosis, 170 institutes or $85\%$ answered. For estimation of exposure dose the entrance

      • KCI등재

        디스플레이용 ITO 투명전도막의 저온 제작

        김경환,김현웅,Kim Kyung-Hwan,Kim Hyun-Woong 한국반도체디스플레이기술학회 2005 반도체디스플레이기술학회지 Vol.4 No.4

        In this study, we prepared the ITO thin film for TOLED(Top-emitting OLED) or flexible display at room temperature using the FTS(Facing Targets Sputtering Apparatus). We observed characteristics of deposited thin films as a function of sputtering conditions. XRD patterns were independence trom oxygen gas flow and input current. But electrical and optical properties were strongly dependence. In the results, we could prepare good properties of ITO thin films resistivity of $4.27X10^{-4}[\Omega-cm]$, transmittance of over 80% at working gas pressure 1[mTorr], input current 0.6[A], oxygen gas ratio 0.3[sccm], at room temperature.

      • KCI등재

        ESD 보호 소자를 탑재한 다중 스위치 전류모드 Buck-Boost Converter

        김경환,이병석,김동수,박원석,정준모,Kim, Kyung-Hwan,Lee, Byung-Suk,Kim, Dong-Su,Park, Won-Suk,Jung, Jun-Mo 한국전기전자학회 2011 전기전자학회논문지 Vol.15 No.4

        In this paper, a current-mode buck-boost converter using Multiple switching devices is presented. The efficiency of the proposed converter is higher than that of conventional buck-boost converter. In order to improve the power efficiency at the high current level, the proposed converter is controlled with PWM(pulse width modulation) method. The converter has maximum output current 300mA, input voltage 3.3V, output voltage from 700mV to 12V, 1.5MHz oscillation frequency, and maximum efficiency 90%. Moreover, this paper proposes watchdog circuits in order to ensure the reliability and to improve the performance of dc-dc converters. An electrostatic discharge(ESD) protection circuit for deep submicron CMOS technology is presented. The proposed circuit has low triggering voltage using gate-substrate biasing techniques. Simulated result shows that the proposed ESD protection circuit has lower triggering voltage(4.1V) than that of conventional ggNMOS(8.2V). 본 논문에서는 다중 스위치를 이용한 전류모드 벅-부스트 컨버터의 벅-부스트 컨버터를 제안하였다. 제안한 컨버터는 넓은 출력 전압 범위와 높은 전류 레벨에서 높은 전력 변환 효율을 갖기 위해 PWM 제어법을 이용하였다. 제안한 컨버터는 최대 출력전류 300mA, 입력 전압 3.3V, 출력 전압 700mV~12V, 1.5MHz의 스위칭 주파수, 최대효율 90% 갖는다. 또한, dc-dc 컨버터의 신뢰성과 성능을 향상시키기 위해 보호회로를 추가하였다. 그리고 Deep-submicron 공정 기술을 이용한 ESD 보호회로를 제안하였다. 제안된 보호회로는 게이트-기판 바이어싱 기술을 이용하여 낮은 트리거 전압을 구현하였다. 시뮬레이션 결과는 일반적인 ggnmos의 트리거 전압(8.2V) 에 비해 고안된 소자의 트리거 전압은 4.1V 으로 더 낮은 트리거 전압 특성을 나타냈다.

      • 슬관절 각도에 따른 교각운동이 하지근 활성도에 미치는 영향

        김경환,기경일,윤혜진,Kim, Kyung-hwan,Ki, Kyong-il,Youn, Hye-jin 대한고유수용성신경근촉진법학회 2011 PNF and Movement Vol.9 No.1

        Purpose : The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the lower extremity muscle activity on bridging exercise according to the knee joint angle. Methods : Twenty-five healthy adults volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects were required to complete following four bridging exercises; knee joint flexion $120^{\circ}$, $90^{\circ}$, $60^{\circ}$, $45^{\circ}$. Surface electromyography from selected lower extremity muscles was normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Muscle activity was measured by QEMG-4 system (LXM 3204, Laxtha Korea). A repeated measures of one-way ANOVA was used to determine the influence of bridging exercise on muscle activity for each muscle and descriptive statistics was used to determine muscle ratio. Results : The biceps femoris of all bridging exercises showed significantly(p<.05). The vastus medialis and lateralis of all bridging exercises showed significant excepted $120^{\circ}$(p<.05). The rectus femoris of all bridging exercises showed no significant. Median of vastus medialis/rectus femoris ratio of $120^{\circ}$ was 2.03, $90^{\circ}$ was 2.16, $60^{\circ}$ was 2.67, $45^{\circ}$ was 4.10. Median of vastus lateralis/rectus femoris ratio of $120^{\circ}$ was 1.70, $90^{\circ}$ was 1.70, $60^{\circ}$ was 2.08, $45^{\circ}$ was 2.58. Median of vastus medialis/vastus lateralis ratio of $120^{\circ}$ was 1.26, $90^{\circ}$ was 1.50, $60^{\circ}$ was 1.52, $45^{\circ}$ was 1.47. Conclusion : Angular motion decreasing with knee joint flexion made increase biceps femoris and vastus medialis activation. This result will be use knee joint stabilizing exercises during bridging or unstable surface training and biceps femoris strength training.

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