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Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical studies which focus on acupuncture's effect on anxiety disorder. Methods: We selected clinical studies through six databases. We then examined the characteristics of the selected studies and conducted an assessment for Risk of Bias (ROB). Results: Seventeen randomized-controlled trials were selected to determine the effects of acupuncture on anxiety disorders. We found that the risk of bias in most studies was unclear. The intervention of 7 seventeen randomized-controlled trials (RCT) was basic acupuncture, 8 RCT involved electric acupuncture, 2 RCT consisted of acupuncture and Moxibustion. Four of the 7 basic acupuncture RCTs and 5 of the 8 electric acupuncture RCTs had a significant effect on anxiety factors for anxiety disorders. Conclusions: Acupuncture treatment for anxiety disorders was found to be effective compared to the controls, or there was no difference in effectiveness compared to the controls. However, the quality of the included studies was low, and there only were a small number of studies. Therefore, well-designed studies and a greater number of the studies are needed.
Objectives : After analyzing the proficiency of medical communication of the students in College of Korean Traditional Medicine using standardized patients, we suggests ways to improve clinical practice in the future class and medical communication curriculum development. Methods : 20 students before clinical practice class (3rd grade) and 20 students after 1 year clinical practice class (4th grade) participated and did their medical interview on Standardized patient. They were evaluated on patient-physician communication skills by standardized patients and professor evaluator. In addition to be evaluated on patient-physician relationship, medical interview skills by professor evaluator. Results : As follows in the evaluation of clinical practice with standardized patients 1. More than half of the participated students regardless of their grade received poor score in their medical communication evaluated by SP(Standardized patient) and PE(Professor evaluator). 2. Greeting, History taking parts were higher in the 4th students who received 1 year clinical practice class, but verbal-nonverbal response, voice tone parts were higher in the 3rd students who do not received clinical practice lesson. 3. Pronunciation&Voice tone parts were higher in the male students but, gathering information part was higher in the female students. Conclusions : We think that the current clinical practice lessons are insufficient as a way to learn and improve medical knowledge and medical communication skills, and it is necessary a new form of clinical practice class. Participatory lesson using standardized patient could be a good alternative of that in the future class.
범죄자 프로파일링은 최신 과학수사기법으로 외국에서는 물론 국내에서도 많은 관심을 받고 있는 분야이며, 이에 대한 연구가 최근 들어 경찰 실무에서 뿐만 아니라 사회과학자들에게서도 주목을 받고 있는 실정이다. 범죄자 프로파일링은 미국에서 1960년대 이후 급증한 연쇄살인 범죄에 대한 새로운 수사기법으로 개발된 분야로서, 연쇄살인 범죄자에 대해서는 비교적 다양한 연구가 수행된 반면 방화범죄자에 대해서는 국내 외의 연구가 매우 부족한 상황이다. 이에 본 논문에서는 외국에서 수행된 연구 및 방화범죄자의 유형 구분이 가능한가에 대한 외국의 연구 결과들을 검토하여 국내에서 방화범죄자의 프로파일링이 어떻게 이루어져야할 것인가에 대한 기초 연구를 제공하고자 한다. Recently, police agency and social scientists' interest in the criminal profiling is increasing. Since serial killings had sharply increased during 1960s in U.S. the American law enforcement agency were pushed to solve those criminal incidents. Therefore, they drew various investigative techniques. But there are no study for the criminal profiling of arsonists. So, this paper reviewed prior studies on the arsonist's type and suggested how to apply this kind of basic information for investigating arson cases in Korea.
Understanding of the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is constantly evolving and, recently, a number of biologic agents have been developed. They selectively target specific molecule or pathways and correct the imbalance of the gut immune system. Among them, antibody to tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF-α) is the first developed drugs, and it dramatically improved the IBD management. However, more than one-third of the patients do not respond to the drugs due to antibody formation. To increase treatment efficacy, enormous effort to develop novel anti-cytokines which can be an alternative to anti-TNF-α has been made. They are anti CD4+ T cell cytokine including interleukin (IL)-12/23 and IL-17 blockers, selective anti-adhesion molecule known as natalizumab, vedolizumab and alicaforsen, T-cell proliferation inhibitor, anti-inflammatory cytokine, immune stimulator, growth factor, and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor. The efficacy and safety of each drugs are under investigation. Some drugs reported very promising data, however, others showed disappointing and different results. In addition, most of the trials were done in a very small number of patients, and there is no trial comparing to anti-TNF-α. The present paper reviews the action mechanism, short or long term efficacy and safety of variable drugs other than anti-TNF-α in IBD. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2011;58:235-244)
목적: 한국인에서 대장 게실증은 서양에 비해 드물고 호발 부위도 차이를 보이는 것으로 알려져 있으나 최근 보고들에 의하면 식생활 변화와 진단 방법의 보편화 등에 따라 발생빈도가 증가하고 있다. 저자들은 이에 단일 연구기관에서 대장내시경 검사를 통해 대장 게실증을 진단 받은 환자를 대상으로 빈도 및 임상양상을 분석하고자 하였다. 대상 및 방법: 2000년 1월부터 2007년 12월까지 영남대학교병원에서 대장내시경을 시행한 환자 25,808명 중 중복 검사는 1회로 간주하여 후향적으로 의무기록을 검토하고 대장 게실증을 진단 받은 환자들의 연간 발생빈도 및 환자의 연령, 성별분포, 호발부위 및 합병증을 분석하였다. 결과: 대상 환자 21,799명 중 1,198명이 대장 게실증을 진단 받아 전체 발생빈도는 5.5%로 나타났고 2000년부터 2007년까지 발생빈도는 4.6%에서 7.2%로 증가하는 양상을 보이며(p=0.04), 환자의 평균 연령은 57.0±12.4세(범위 19-97세)였으며 호발 연령대는 60-69세가 9.6%, 50-59세가 8%로 나타났다. 성별에 따른 발생 빈도는 남자는 5.4%, 여자는 3.7%였다. 발생부위는 상행결장이 515예(43%), 맹장이 282예(23.5%)였으며 좌우대장의 분포는 6.2:1로 우측에서 호발하였고 64예(5.3%)는 양측 모두 분포하였다. 연령이 증가할수록좌측 대장의 비율이 증가하였다(p=0.00). 516명(43.1%)의 환자는 단발성으로 나타났고 682명(56.9%)은 2개 이상으로 나타났다. 합병증은 51예(4.2%)에서 나타났고 게실염이 35예(2.9%), 출혈이 16예(1.3%)였으며 게실염의 경우 항생제 및 내과적 치료로 호전되었으며 출혈의 경우도 내시경적 지혈술로 호전되었으며 재발은 1예에서만 보고되었다. 결론: 대장 게실증의 발생빈도는 매년 증가추세를 나타내며 위치는 우측에서 호발하는 것으로 나타났지만 연령이 증가함에 따라 좌측의 비율이 증가하는 것을 알 수 있었다. 향후대규모 전향적 연구를 통한 증가 원인에 대한 분석이 필요할 것이다 Background/Aims: The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis in Korea is lower than in Western contries and the involved site is different. But, the recently increasing prevalence in Korea may be due to changing life style and advances in diagnostic approachs. We analyzed the annual incidence and clinical manifestations of colonic diverticulosis of the patients who underwent colonofibroscopy. Methods: Medical records of 25,808 patients who underwent colonofibroscopy at Yeungnam University Medical Center from January 2000 to December 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Overall prevalence was 5.5%. The mean age of the patients was 57.02±12.41 years (range 19-97 years) and the most frequent occurrence (28.8%) occurred in the 7th decade of life. Male to female ratio was 977:159. The annual incidence rate increased from 4.6% to 7.2% since 2000. Diverticulum occurred more frequently in the right side colon (997 cases) than the left side colon (159 cases), with involvement of both sides in 62 cases. The rate of left sided colon increased with age. In 516 patients, only one diverticulum was detected and the other 682 patients had multiple diverticuli. Complications were evident in 51 cases, consisting of diverticulititis in 35 cases and bleeding in 16 cases. Conclusions: According to this single center analysis, the annual incidence rate of colonic diverticulosis is increasing with right sided colon as the predominant site. But, the frequency in left-sided colon is increasing with age. (Intest Res 2008;6:116-120)
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This study investigated factors affecting the use of Semi-permanent Makeup, satisfaction with the treatment and recommendation intention against Vietnamese women and discussed key implications based on the results. For this, a total of 294 women were survayed in Hanoi, who have shown an interest in Semi-permanent Makeup from May 10 to August 10 (90 days), 2019, and the results found the followings: First, 67.3% of the respondents had the Semi -permanent Makeup treatment before, showing a high interest in Semi-permanent Makeup. When asked what made them get this treatment, ‘Persistence of the effects’ and ‘Image changes’ were most responded. In terms of a body part already treated or to be treated, ‘Eyebrows’ was most responded. When asked where they got the treatment, ‘Spa’ was the highest. When asked from whom they wanted to get treatment, ‘Semi-permanent Makeup specialist’ was most responded. In terms of the length of treatment, ‘1-2 hour(s)’ was the highest. When asked what aspect they considered most before the treatment, ‘Makeup skills’ and ‘Aesthetic effects’ were most responded. Second, when asked what considered most for Semi-permanent Makeup, ‘Costs’ was the highest. In terms of satisfaction with the treatment and intention to recommend it to others, satisfaction was more than average and recommendation intention was also high. Third, in terms of the effects of consideration of the factors affecting the use of Semi-permanent Makeup on satisfaction and recommendation intention, as treatment costs decreased, safety and recommendation intention were higher. It is predicted that the study results would be useful as foundation data for a better future by investigating consumers’ propensities and market differentiation with a goal of penetrating into Vietnamese Semi-permanent makeup industry.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to validate the correlation between Pain Face Scale(PFS) and Numerical Rating Scale(NRS), and to find out the methods to assess headache by PFS Methods: The study participants included 28 headache patients. All patients answered questionnair, which include PFS, NRS, and other questions for measurements headache. It is analyzed by frequency, correlation with spss windows 14.0 Results: 1. PFS include the strength of headache, and feelings. 2. PFS express strength of headache more than NRS. 3. There was no significant relationship between aspect and regions of headache. Conclusions: Therefore PFS is objective measurement scale of headache.
대양 및 분지를 횡단하는 지진해일 전파 시뮬레이션은 컴퓨터 집약적인 작업이다. 이 보고는 지진해일의 해수면 높이와 유속장에 대한 방대한 출력을 다루는 효과적이고 상세화된 과학가시화 기법을 보여준다. 이 고화질의 과학가시화 기법은 1960년과 2010년 칠레지진해일의 시뮬레이션과 1983년 동해중부지진해일의 결과를 제시하는데 사용되었다. 고화질 그래픽 애니메이션은 해양과 연안의 지형에 따른 지진해일의 자세한 전파양상을 보여줄 수 있는 도구이다. Simulation of the trans-oceanic or trans-basin propagation of a tsunami is a computer-intensive task. This study demonstrates an effective and detailed visualization technique to deal with the vast amount of surface-elevation and velocity-field output. This high-definition visualization technique is used to present simulations of the 1960 and 2010 Chilean earthquake tsunamis and the 1983 Central East (Japan) Sea earthquake tsunami. This tsunami-visualization method using high-definition graphic animation is an appropriate tool to show detailed tsunami-propagation behavior over an ocean or coastal sea, as exemplified by the Pacific Ocean and East (Japan) Sea tsunami events.
Anemia is one of the commonest extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The pathogenesis of anemia in IBD is complex but iron deficiency combined with inflammation is the most common factor related to the development of anemia. However, other causes such as vitamin B12 and folate deficiency, hemolysis, myelosuppression and drug also should not be overlooked. In addition to ferritin, inflammatory markers and new biochemical parameters such as hepcidin and ferritin index are being tested as diagnostic a tool. First step for treatment is disease activity control and iron supplementation. Although oral iron is widely used, intravenous iron therapy should be considered in patients who are intolerant to oral iron therapy, have severe and refractory anemia or are in active disease state. Recently, new intravenous iron formulations have been introduced and due to their safety and easy usage, they have become the standard treatment modality for managing anemia in IBD. Erythropoietin and transfusion can be considered in specific situations. Vitamin B12 and folate supplementation is also important in patients who are deficient of these micronutrients. Since anemia in IBD patients could significantly influence the disease outcome, further studies and standard guideline for IBD are needed. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2015;65:145-150)