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Congenital midline cervical cleft is a rare congenital anomaly of the ventral neck. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the literature. This anomaly is part of a spectrum of midline branchiogenic syndromes resulting from abnormal migration of cells derived from the branchial arches. It presents as a small skin tag superiorly with a linear, ventrically oriented atrophic patch. We present a case of congenital midline cervical cleft associated with congenital cardiac anomaly. (Korean J Dermatol 2003;41(8) : 1076~1078)
우리 나라의 국체발행시장은 1999년 9월에 완전경쟁입찰을 도입하였다. 경매방식으로는 복수가격 경매방식을 사용해 오다가 년 8월부터 단일가격 경매방식으로 전환하였다. 본 논문은 微視的 入札 資料와 總量 資料 모두를 사용하여 우리 나라 국채경매에서 단일가격경매 방식을 사용하는 것이 복수가격경매 방식을 사용하는 것보다 경매인의 경매수입을 증가시키는지 실증적으로 분석하였다. 분석결과 단일가격 방식이 복수가격 방식보다 경매인의 수입을 증가시키는 것으로 나타났다.
The international system of East-Asia, Tribute system(朝貢體制) was strengthened in the side of system unlike former time at the very end of the Goryeo and early Joseon. The case especially of the diplomacy documents were made when there were diplomatic issues, according to diplomatic goals. Some of the Joseon's Sadae documents(事大文書) in the Ming period included 'p'yomun', 'jonmun', 'jumun', 'jangmun', 'jamun', 'gyemun', 'sinmun', 'jeongmun'. With the reorganization of government organs in the early Joseon period, the Seungmunwon became important as the significance and demand of Sadae documents increased due to the urgent development with Ming. Sadae documents hold a key post in Joseon, unlike other state documents. The preservation was a form of registration, since it was impossible that all documents were preserved. A few forms were organized, such as 『Imun(吏文)』 in the early of Joseon. While these documents were the original copy, they have historical importance in terms of summarizing the foreign affairs. The storage of Sadae documents made full use of the foreign affairs and policy. Joseon knew the necessity of the 'Imun' and trained the expert in the early. 『Imun』 is composed of the introductory remarks of the glossary, and 2-4 volumes of Sadae documents, and included in the diplomatic documents are those from 1370 (Kongminwang 19, Goryeo dynasty) to 1478 (Seongjong 9), 93 documents. It was important that these documents had a democratic gravity to Ming. Also, They reflected the decision-making process of foreign policy to Ming. However, works on this subject have been insufficient in spite of it`s importance. The existing research emphasized the value to be Korean literature about the 『Imun』, but that was to arrange the diplomacy document so very important as materials for studying the diplomatic history of the early Joseon dynasty.
본 논문에서는 기존의 웹 하드디스크보다 쉽게 기능을 확장할 수 있고, 웹에서의 일반 어플리케이션을 보다 좀 더 간편하게 사용자의 요구에 맞도록 커스터마이징이 가능한 웹 스토리지 기반의 그룹오피스 시스템을 설계하고 구현하였다. 제안하는 웹스토리지는 다수의 스토리지 서버가 모여서 구성되는 분산 시스템이다 이 웹스토리지는 사용자의 위치에 따라 서비스해 주는 서버를 달리하는 방법을 제공하여 보다 빠른 스토리지 서비스가 가능하다. In this paper, we design and implement a distributed web-storage and a group office system based on the distributed web-storage. It is easier to customize the proposed group office according to user's demands than existing web-based applications. Our proposed web-storage is distributed system which consists of multiple storage servers. The web-storage provides storage with considering the user's location so as to provide fast storage service.
Background: Therapy using a targeted epidural blood patch (EBP) has been linked to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia syndrome empirically, when conservative therapies failed to relieve headaches. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of EBP, for those who are refractory to conservative therapy, as a treatment for syndrome of CSF hypovolemia. Methods: Sixteen patients were studied, where six patients were treated with conservative therapy and 10 patients were treated with EBP. After the treatments, we evaluated the difference in the duration of headaches between the two groups. With the patients treated with EBP, we also evaluated the differences in the duration of headaches between those with or without pachymeningeal enhancement on a brain MRI, and those with or without CSF leakage site on RI cisternography. Results: Mean duration (1.30±0.48 days) of headaches in those treated with EBP was significantly shorter than in those without EBP (p=0.022). There was no significant difference in duration of headaches between those with and without pachymeningeal enhancement in a brain MRI. There was also no significant difference in duration of headache between those with and without CSF leakage in RI cisternography. Conclusions: The EBP is an effective therapy for syndrome of CSF hypovolemia regardless of pachymeningeal enhancement in a brain MRI and CSF leakage in RI cisternography when conservative therapies fail to relieve headaches.
Single-electron transistors with a side gate structure were fabricated on SOI (silicon-on-insulator) substrate. The silicon channel in which electrons could be transported was dened by electron-beam lithography, and the channel was wrapped by two side gates which could control the electrically induced tunnel barrier. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated device were measured at 4.2 K. The measured characteristics showed a larger current oscillation period and amplitude than those estimated from the structural parameters. Also, the current contour plot showed irregular Coulomb diamonds with dierent sizes. These characteristics are the result of multi-dot formation. A Monte-Carlo simulation veried that these multi-dot characteristics result from unintentional quantum dots due to the irregularity of electron-beam lithography.n Single-electron transistors with a side gate structure were fabricated on SOI (silicon-on-insulator)substrate. The silicon channel in which electrons could be transported was dened by electron-beamlithography, and the channel was wrapped by two side gates which could control the electricallyinduced tunnel barrier. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated device were measured at4.2 K. The measured characteristics showed a larger current oscillation period and amplitude thanthose estimated from the structural parameters. Also, the current contour plot showed irregularCoulomb diamonds with dierent sizes. These characteristics are the result of multi-dot formation. A Monte-Carlo simulation veried that these multi-dot characteristics result from unintentionalquantum dots due to the irregularity of electron-beam lithography.n