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To clarify some confusions concerning identification of the Korean Peridinium species, genotypic analysis was performed with their SSU rDNA sequences. PCR was used to amplify the partial SSU rDNA of Peridinium isolates collected from three different Korean waters (Juam, Sang-sa and Togyo Reservoirs). The PCR products were allowed directly to sequence, which revealed each 942 bp of rDNA sequence. Analyses of the rDNA sequences showed that all the Korean isolates had the same genotype (100% sequence homology), and they were nearly identical to a Japanese strain of P. bipes f. occultatum (NIES 364; 99.8% sequence similarity). The sequence-based comparisons could clearly resolve P. bipes f. occultatum isolated from three different Korean waters.
DNA-based discrimination of species is a powerful way for morphologically otherwise similar species, like centric diatoms. Here, the author sequenced long-range nuclear ribosomal DNAs, spanning from the 18S to the D5 region of the 28S rDNA, of Stephanodiscus, particularly including a Korean isolate. By comparisons, high DNA similarities were detected from the rDNAs of nine Stephanodiscus (>99.4% in 18S rDNA, >98.0% in 28S rDNA). Their genetic distances, however, were significantly different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.01) compared to two related genera, namely Cyclotella and Discostella. In addition, genetic distances of 18S rDNAs were significantly different Student’s t-test, p = 0.000) against those of the 28S rDNAs according to individual genera (Cyclotella, Discostella, and Stephanodiscus). Phylogenetic analyses showed that Stephanodiscus and Discostella showed a sister taxon relationship, and their clade was separated from a cluster of Cyclotella (1.00 PP, 100% BP). This suggests that Stephanodiscus has highly conserved sequences of both 18S and 28S rDNA; however, Stephanodiscus is well-separated from other freshwater centric diatoms, such as Cyclotella and Discostella, at the generic level.
Cells of the dinoflagellate Peridinium were frequently observed in water samples of Togyo reservoir, and some species were responsible for dense blooms. Recently, we could identify them as P. bipes f. occultatum Lindem. and P. aciculiferum Lemm., considering morphology (Ki et al. 2005a; Ki and Han 2005b): However, some unidentified Peridinium cells with different shapes and body sizes were found among the samples collected during early spring. Here we describe their morphological characteristics such as thecal plate and body size to characterize its taxonomic identity by morphological characters. The formula of epithecal plates was recorded as 4 apical, 2 intercalary and 7 precingular plates (i.e. 4’, 2a, 7’’) and the epicone in an apical view was symmetric. An apical pore was easy to make out under a light microscope. No cingular displacement was observed. The average body size was 33 μm in length with a range of 26-36 μm, and average 26 μm in width with a range of 21-31 μm, respectively; the cell was, therefore, shown slightly elongated. This way we identified Peridinium umbonatum Stein, 1883 for the first time from Korean freshwaters.
PCR primers (N=18) were designed for the isolation of complete SSU to LSU rDNA sequences from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Standard PCR, employing each primer set selected for amplifications of less than 1.5 kb, successfully amplified the expected rDNA regions of A. tamarense (Korean isolate, HY970328M). Complete SSU, LSU rDNAs and ITS sequences, including 5.8S rDNA, were recorded at 1,800 bp, 520 bp and 3,393 bp, respectively. The LSU rDNA sequence was the first report in Alexandrium genus. No intron was found in the LSU rRNA coding region. Twelve D-domains within the LSU rDNA were put together into 1,879 bp (44.4% G+C), and cores into 1514 bp (42.8% G+C). The core sequence was significantly different (0.0867 of genetic distance, 91% sequence similarity) in comparison with Prorocentrum micans (GenBank access. no. X16108). The D2 region was the longest in length (300 bp) and highly variable among the 12 D-domains. In a phylogenetic analysis using complete LSU rDNA sequences of a variety of phytoplankton, A. tamarense was clearly separated with high resolution against other species. The result suggests that the sequence may resolve the taxonomic ambiguities of Alexandrium genus, particularly of the tamarensis complex.
남조세균 Microcystis (Cyanobacteria, Chroococcales)는 담수 녹조원인 생물의 하나로써 일부 종은 microcystin이라는 간 독소를 분비한다. 따라서 담수 수질관리 및 보건위생 측면에서 이들에 대한 관리가 필요하다. 본 연구는 Microcystis 분자 검출을 위한 신규 마커로 RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) 유전자 염기서열을 분석하여 이들의 분자적 특성을 규명하였다. Microcystis rpoB 유전자는 16S rRNA보다 염기 유사도와 유전거리에서 큰 변이가 있는 것으로 조사되었으며, 통계적으로 유의한 차이를 보였다(Student t-test, p<0.05). Parsimony 분석을 통해 rpoB 유전자가 16S rRNA 유전자보다 2배 이상 빠르게 진화하는 것으로 파악되었다. 또한 rpoB 유전자 phylogeny 분석에서 16S rRNA tree 보다 M. aeruginosa 균주를 명확하게 구분해 주었다. Microcystis가 속하는 Chroococcales 목은 염색체 안에 2개 정도의 rRNA 오페론이 있고 rpoB 유전자는 1개 있는 것으로 조사되었다. 본 연구결과는 rpoB 유전자가 Microcystis의 분자계통분류 및 분자검출 마커로 유용하다는 것을 제시해 준다. Microcystis (Cyanobacteria, Chroococcales) is one of the green tide-causing organisms in freshwaters, and some species produce microcystin that is hepatotoxin. In the aspects of freshwater quality controls and health concerns, therefore it is necessary to manage the harmful organisms. In the present study, RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene sequences of Microcystis were determined and characterized in order to use a potential marker for the molecular detections of the species. Microcystis rpoB showed high divergences of DNA similarity and genetic distances when compared with those of 16S rRNA, and the molecular differences were statistically significant (Student t-test, p<0.05). Parsimony analyses showed the rpoB gene evolves more than 2-fold faster than 16S rRNA. In addition, phylogeny of the rpoB gene separated each M. aeruginosa strain more clearly compared with a 16S rRNA tree. This study found that the order Chroococcales, including Microcystis, has approximately two rRNA operons and single copy of the rpoB gene in their chromosomes. These results suggest that the rpoB gene is a useful marker for the molecular phylogenetics and the detection of Microcystis.
세균 16S rRNA 유전자 염기서열은 분자계통분류, 진화역사 규명, 미생물 검출 등 다양한 목적으로 이용되어 왔다. 세균 제놈(genome)은 multiple rRNA 오페론을 갖고 있으며, 이들 유전자 염기서열은 일부 변이가 있는 것으로 알려져 있다. 본 연구에서는 Vibrio 속의 16S rRNA 유전자 염기서열을 이용하여 세포 내 16S rRNA의 이질성을 규명하였다. 분석은 GenBank 자료 중에서 제놈 염기서열 annotation이 완료된 V. cholerae, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. splendidus, V. vulnificus를 이용하여 실시하였다. Vibrio 속은 1번 염색체에 7~10개의 16S rRNA 유전자 copy를 갖고 있으며, 이들의 세포 내 유전자 변이는 0.9% 이하 상이성(99.1%이상 DNA 상동성)을 보였다. 2번 염색체에서는 16S rRNA 유전자가 1개 이하로 존재하였다. 유전체내 16S rRNA 유전형은 최소 5개(V. vulnificus #CMCP6)에서 최대 8개(V. parahaemolyticus #RIMD 2210633, V. harveyi #ATCC BAA-1116)로 조사되었다. 본 결과는 Vibrio 속의 16S rRNA 유전자 염기서열이 높은 이질성을 갖는 것을 제시해 준다. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences have been widely used for the studies on molecular phylogeny, evolutional history, and molecular detections. Bacterial genomes have multiple rRNA operons, of which gene sequences sometimes are variable. In the present study, heterogeneity of the Vibrio 16S rRNA gene sequences were investigated. Vibrio 16S rRNA sequences were obtained from GenBank databases, considering the completion of gene annotation of Vibrio genome sequences. These included V. cholerae, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. splendidus, and V. vulnificus. Chromosome 1 of the studied Vibrio had 7~10 copies of the 16S rRNA gene, and their intragenomic variations were less than 0.9% dissimilarity (more than 99.1% DNA similarity). Chromosome 2 had none or single 16S rRNA gene. Intragenomic 16S rRNA genotypes were detected at least 5 types (V. vulnificus #CMCP6) to 8 types (V. parahaemolyticus #RIMD 2210633, V. harveyi #ATCC BAA-1116). These suggest that Vibrio has high heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene sequences.