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Il existe une categorie dite des actes de gouvernement, accomplis par des autorites administratives, qui ne sont susceptibles d'aucun recours devant les tribunaux, tant administratifs que judiciaires. Cette theorie est differente d'une part de la theorie du pouvoir discretionnaire, d'autre part de la theorie des circonstances exceptionnelles. La theorie des actes de gouvernment est d'origine jurisprudentielle. Mais on fonde parfois cette theorie sur l'artical 26 de la loi du 24 mai 1872. Au ?? siecle, le Conseil d'Etat tendait a considerer comme acte de gouvernement toute mesure inspiree par un mobile politique. Elle a ete abandonnee a la fin du ?? siecle par la jurisprudence. On chercha alors a definir l'acte de gouvernement par la notion de fonction gouvernementale; mais cette recherche n'a pas donne lieu a une construction jurisprudentielle durable. On est alors passe des tentatives de definition retionnelle a une conception purement empirique. L'enumeration jurisprudentielle des actes de gouvernement a ete ellememe progressivement reduite. Il demeure actuellement deux grands domaines d'application de l'acte de gouvernement: le premier concerne les actes du pouvoir executif dans ses rapports avec le Parlement, le second, plus complex, les actes relatifs aux relations internationales. Le regime juridique de l'acte de gouvernement est caracterise par l'immunite juridictionnelle dont il beneficie. Cette immunite est radicale. D'autre part elle est generale en ce qu'elle concerne a la fois le contentieux de la legalite, de la responsabilite et meme, pour les traites internationaux, celui de l'interpretation. La jurisprudence relative aux actes de gouvernement a provoque des controverses en ce qui concerne la possibilite d'expliquer et de systematiser les regles qui la constituent. Certains pensent que la pretendue categorie des actes de gourvernement n'existe pas reellement. D'autres auteurs pensent au contraire qu'il existe bien une categorie originale d'actes, celle des, actes de gourvernement; cette categorie correspond a l'exercise de la fonction gouvernementale. Les theses niant l'existence des actes de gouvernement n'expliquent pas tous les cas d'irrecevabilite. Quant a la theorie de la fonction gouvernementale, elle se heurte a la difficulte de definir cette fonction. Pour cette raison, l'acte de gouvernement representer, dans la mesure ou il subsiste une categorie de decisions dont la soustraction au controle contentieux s'explique plus par des raisons politiques que juridiques.
Multi-functionalized rugate porous silicon (PSi) for biosensor was developed by hydrosilylation with silole and its further reaction with biotin groups. PSi was generated by an electrochemical etching of silicon wafer in aqueous ethanolic HF solution PSi prepared by using etching conditions showed that many sharp spectral lines can be obtained in the optical reflectivity spectrum. 1,1-hydrovinyl-2,3,4,5-tetraphenylsilole was obtained from the reaction of 1,1-dilithio-2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene with dichlorovinylsilane. Multi-functionalized PSi with silole and biotin groups was characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Ocean optics 2000 spectrometer, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Optical characteristics such as reflectivity and photoluminescence (PL) were observed. An increase of the reflection wavelength in the reflectivity spectrum by 20 nm was observed, indicative of a change in refractive indices induced by hydrosilylation of the silole and biotin groups to the rugate PSi. This red-shift was attributed to the replacement of some of the Si-H group of fresh rugate PSi with silole and biotin group.
Background: Sarcopenia is considering important disease entity in elderly. Several study groups define the sum of the muscle masses of the four limbs as appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) to calculate skeletal muscle index (SMI). The purpose of this study was to determine cut point of SMI for sarcopenia in Korean women. Methods: This study was based on data obtained from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V. A whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan were performed on individuals of ≥10 years old from July 2008 to May 2011. In the analysis, 11,633 women were included. ASM was calculated and SMI was obtained as ASM/height2 . Cutoff value was defined two standard deviations below mean values for young reference group. Results: Of 11,633 women aged 10 to 97 years, mean and standard deviation of year was 46.73±18.54 years. The highest level of height was noted in 20's and the highest total sum of skeletal mass was seen 14.87 kg in 40's. The highest value of SMI was noted in 60's in Korean women. Cutoff value as mean value of young women was decided with SMI of 30's and 40's that have peak ASM. Mean and standard deviation of SMI in those ages was 5.9±0.7 kg/m2 . A SMI of two standard deviations below the mean SMI of reference groups was 4.4 kg/m2 as cutoff value. Conclusions: This study shows that 4.4 kg/m2 of SMI in Korean women was cutoff value of sarcopenia. Further study is clearly required to decide cutoff value of SMI for sarcopenia, especially for Korean women.
Background: The criteria for defining sarcopenia vary among studies and confusion has arisen when defining the cutoff value. As a result, the prevalence of sarcopenia differs markedly depending on the definition. This study used the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia among Korean women. Methods: This study was based on data obtained from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V. We used the AWGS recommended cutoff value of 5.4 kg/m2 to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in Korean women. Results: The prevalence rates of sarcopenia using a cutoff value of 5.4 kg/m2 were 385 (19.5%) in women in their 50s, 286 (16.6%) in women in their 60s, 293 (23.7%) in women in their 70s, and 91 (30.8%) in women ≥80 years. The prevalence rates of sarcopenia were 307 (19.0%) in women 65 to 74 years, 194 (27.4%) in women 75 to 84 years, and 32 (40.5%) in women ≥85 years. The overall prevalence among women >50 years was 20.2%. The prevalence of sarcopenia in women >65 years was 22.1%. Conclusions: The prevalence of sarcopenia among Korean women was within the range of values of previous research about sarcopenia. Furthermore, using 5.4 kg/m2 as the cutoff value was useful to compare various studies about sarcopenia in Koreans.
The EtOAc fraction of Rhodiola rosea ethanolic extracts showed a strong antioxidant activity. Through activity-guided fractionation and purification, we isolated two flavonol glycosides, which were identified as the well known flavonoids, rhodionin (1) and rhodiosin (2). To compare their antioxidant activities, we used an authentic aglycone compound, herbacetin (3). Among the compounds tested, rhodiosin (2) exhibited strong antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 0.21 and 0.15 µM against ·OH and ·O 2, respectively. Rhodiosin (2) (100 mg/kg) reduced MDA content in the liver induced by irradiation when given prior to exposure of γ-radiation.