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The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of vigor of a bearing shoot in ‘Bluecrop' Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on growth characteristics of shoots and fruits. Bearing shoots were classified with BS (bearing shoot) and BMB (bearing mother branch). The vigor of bearing shoots were divided into four arbitrary categories; A was thin (< 6.0 ㎜) BMB and short (< 10 ㎝) BS, B was thin BMB and long (≥ 10 ㎝) BS, C was thick (≥ 6 ㎜) BMB and short BS and D was thick BMB and long BS. Shoots from D were longer (6.5 ㎝) and thicker (1.70 ㎜) than those from the others. Shoots of D had more leaves (5.8 ea) than those of the others. Leaf area of D was larger (13.5 ㎠) than those of the others. The first harvest of D was one week faster than the others. Ratio of big berry (> 14 ㎜) from the long BSs was higher (B : 41.7, D : 46.8%) than that from the short BSs. Soluble solid content of small berrys did not show any different according to vigor of bearing shoots, but soluble solid content of big berrys of the long BSs was higher (B : 16.2, D : 15.6 o Bx) than those of the short BSs. The thickness of BMB did not affect ratio of fruit size and soluble soild content. The long BSs would be proper than the short BSs for bearing bigger fruits.
Background: This study evaluated the utility of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Alcohol Consumption Questions (AUDIT-C) in screening at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorders among Korean college students. Methods: For the 387 students who visited Chungnam National University student health center, drinking state and alcohol use disorders were assessed through diagnostic interviews. In addition, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT-C, and cut down, annoyed, guilty, eye-opener (CAGE) were applied. The utility of the questionnaires for the interview results were compared. Results: The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) of AUDIT-C for screening at-risk drinking were 0.927 in the male and 0.921 in the female participants. The AUROCs of AUDIT and CAGE were 0.906 and 0.643,respectively, in the male, and 0.898 and 0.657, respectively, in the female participants. The optimal screening scores of at-risk drinking in AUDIT-C were ≥6 in the male and ≥4 in the female participants; and in AUDIT and CAGE, ≥8 and ≥1,respectively, in the male, and ≥5 and ≥1 in the female participants. The AUROCs of AUDIT-C in screening alcohol use disorders were 0.902 in the male and 0.939 in the female participants. In the AUDIT and CAGE, the AUROCs were 0.936and 0.712, respectively, in the male, and 0.960 and 0.844, respectively, in the female participants. The optimal screening scores of alcohol use disorders in AUDIT-C were ≥7 in the male and ≥6 in the female participants; and in AUDIT and CAGE, ≥10 and ≥1, respectively, in the male, and ≥8 and ≥1 in the female participants. Conclusion: AUDIT-C is considered useful in screening at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorders among college students.
This article examines Britain‟s response to the question of Korean independence amid Russo-Japanese rivalry between 1903 and 1905. Russo-Japanese tension reached its peak when Russians unilaterally seized and fortified Yongampo in 1903. Britain expected Korea to check the Russian penetration by opening Yongampo and the Yalu River to foreign commerce, but Korea delayed the opening until the country fell under Japanese occupation in March 1904. Korea‟s reluctance to open the river also made Britain suspect Korea‟s declaration of neutrality. Therefore, when the Russo-Japanese War broke out, Britain acted in cooperation with Japan when they forced Korea to accept Japanese control. Furthermore, since Korea failed to modernise the government, Britain believed that the country should be placed under the control of Japan. Although Kojong and the Korean government were seeking Britain‟s support for the integrity of Korea, Britain approved Japan‟s plan to make Korea a protectorate and tried to secure their commercial interest in the country.