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모링가 잎의 이용성 증대를 할 수 있는 적정 추출조건을 알아보고자 추출용매를 달리하여 추출한 후 항산화 및 생리활성 특성을 비교하였다. 추출수율은 물(13.17%), 메탄올(9.54%), 에탄올(7.48%)의 순으로 나타났으며, 총 폴리페놀 및 플라보노이드 함량은 물 추출물에서 각각 58.04 mg/g, 12.36 mg/g으로 다른 용매에 비해 높은 값을 보였다. 항산화 활성은 물 추출물이 에탄올, 메탄올 추출물에 비해 유의적으로 높은 활성을 나타내었으며 특히 DPPH 및 ABTS 라디칼 소거활성은 양성대조구인 BHT와 비교하였을 때 비슷한 경향을 보여 높은 항산화 활성을 확인하였다. α-glucosidase 저해활성은 다른 추출물에 비해 에탄올 추출물에서 가장 높은 활성을 나타내었다. 한편 ACE 및 HMG-CoA reductase 저해활성은 물 추출물에서 높은 활성을 보였으며 특히 HMG-CoA reductase 저해활성의 경우, 전체적으로 높은 저해활성을 나타내어 콜레스테롤 개선 효과에 대한 가능성을 확인하였다. 이러한 결과를 종합해 볼 때 물 추출물이 에탄올이나 메탄올 추출물보다는 우수한 항산화 및 생리활성 효과를 나타내어 소재 활용가치가 높고 향후 천연 항산화제 및 기능성 소재로서의 개발이 가능할 것으로 판단된다. This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant activity and physiological properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves extracted with three different solvents (water, ethanol, and methanol). The extraction yield from water, methanol, and ethanol were 13.17, 9.54, and 7.48%, respectively. The highest total polyphenol content (58.04 mg/100 g) and total flavonoid contents (12.36 mg/100 g) were observed in water extract. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was the highest in the water extract (79.18%) at the 500 mg% level, similar to BHT (77.18%). Additionally the same tendency was observed with DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging ability, and ferreous ion chelating ability. The water extract showed relatively high antioxidant activities. The angiotensin Ⅰ-converting enzyme (ACE) and the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of water extract at a concentration of 500 mg% were somewhat higher than those of the other extracts. Additionally, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of the water extract was significantly slightly lower than that of the positive control (cholorogenic acid). These results suggest that Moringa leaves extracted with water will be useful as antioxidant-rich and functional natural foods.
This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant activities and physiological properties of Euphorbia humifusa extracts prepared using three different solvents (water, ethanol, and methanol). The highest total polyphenol content (293.25 mg/100 g) and total flavonoid content (21.05 mg/100 g) were observed in the methanol extract. The content of substances related to proanthocyanidin were highest in the water extract (8.42 mg/100 g), followed by methanol (5.70 mg/100 g) and ethanol (5.39 mg/100 g) extracts. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the methanol extract were 91.72% and 85.83%, respectively, at 50 mg% concentrations, which were higher than those of the other extracts. The extract reducing power decreased in the following order: ethanol > methanol > water. The methanol extract had relatively high antioxidant activity. The α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of the methanol extract at a concentration of 10 mg% were somewhat higher than the other extracts. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity in the water extract was slightly higher than in the methanol and water extracts. These results indicated that Euphorbia humifusa extracts were a high-value food ingredient due to their antioxidant activities and nutritional value.
This study was designed to compare the quality characteristics of spray-dried (SD) and freeze-dried (FD) Pueraria thunbergiana extracts powder hot water extracts. Quality characteristics of the SD and FD powder including moisture content, color value, water absorption index, water solubility index, dynamic angle and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The moisture content of SD powder (1.50%) was lower than that of FD powder (2.92%). L* and b* values of SD powder was lower than of FD powder. The water absorption index was higher in FD powder (1.40) and water solubility index in SD powder (94.10%) was higher than that FD powder (90.69%). Dynamic angle of SD powder (36.46°) was higher than that of FD powder (33.30°). The DPPH radical scavenging activities of 5 mg/mL solution of SD powder and FD powder were 85.38 mg/mL, 59.38 mg/mL, respectively. And, the same trend was observed for the ABTS radical scavenging activities of the drying powder as that observed for their DPPH radical scavenging activities. There were relatively higher contents of phenolic compounds in SD powders than in FD powders. In conclusion, spray-dried Pueraria thunbergiana extracts showed the high WSI, polyphenol, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and low moisture content and dynamic angle than freeze dried powder.
The current research aimed to explore whether and how happiness varied. While previous studies mainly focused on either the stability of happiness or the variability of happiness, we took into account the possibility that there might be differences in the patterns of variability in happiness and investigated whether happiness varied in different patterns among different people. To this end, we conducted a series of latent class growth modeling analyses with longitudinal data collected from undergraduates for three years (N = 219). The results showed that there were three different subgroups in terms of patterns of happiness change: increasing vs. stable vs. decreasing. Subsequently, the results of logistic regression analyses indicated that a few demographic variables (i.e., age and major) and Big Five traits (i.e., extroversion, emotional stability, and conscientiousness) could predict the patterns of happiness change. We discussed the implications and limitations of the current research. 본 연구는 행복의 변동 여부와 변동 양상의 차이를 알아보기 위해 실시하였다. 기존의 연구들이 행복의 평균적 변화에만 주목하여 행복을 고정된 특질 혹은 유동적 상태로 이분하여 보았던 것과 달리, 본 연구는 행복 변동 양상에서의 개인차 가능성을 고려하여, 행복의 변동이 개인에 따라 상이한 형태로 나타나는지 조사하였다. 이를 위해 3년에 걸쳐 수집된 대학생 종단 자료(N = 219)를 활용하여 행복 변화에 대한 잠재계층성장모형 분석을 실시하였다. 분석 결과, 행복 변화 유형에 따라 하위-증가형, 유지형, 그리고 감소형의 세 하위 집단이 확인되었다. 추가 로지스틱 분석 결과, 일부 인구 통계학 변인과 성격 특질 변인들이 행복 변화 유형을 예측하는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구 결과들의 시사점 및 한계점에 대해 논하였다.
톳의 산업적 활용도 증진을 위하여 다양한 추출방법(열수, 고온가압, 초고압)을 이용하여 항산화 및 생리활성 특성을 평가하였다. 총 폴리페놀 및 플라보노이드 함량의 경우 전체적으로 가압가열 추출물에서 각각 30.51 mg/g, 4.78 mg/g으로 높은 함량을 나타내었다. 추출방법에 따른 톳 추출물의 항산화 활성을 평가하고자 DPPH와 ABTS 라디칼 소거활성 및 환원력을 실시하였으며 그 결과, 모든 실험구에서 농도 의존적으로 증가하는 경향을 보였으며 특히 고온가압 추출물이 전체적으로 높은 활성을 보였다. 그러나 지방산패 및 XO 억제활성의 경우 초고압 처리한 톳 추출물이 1 mg/mL의 농도에서 각각 61.93%, 33.68%로 가장 높은 활성을 나타내었다. 또한 tyrosinase 및 elastase 저해활성은 1 mg/mL의 농도에서 초고압 추출물이 각각 40.51%, 73.79%로 가장 높은 활성을 보였으며 고온가압, 열수의 순으로 나타났다. 톳의 경우 온도와 압력을 가했을 때 유용물질의 용출이 용이해져 다양한 항산화 및 생리활성을 나타내는 것을 알 수 있었으며 고온가압 및 초고압 추출물은 소재 활용가치가 높은 것으로 사료되며 기능성 증진을 위한 천연 식품소재로 활용 가능할 것으로 판단된다. The physiological properties of extracts from Hizikia fusiforme with different extraction methods (hot water extraction, autoclave extraction and high pressure extraction) were investigated. The amounts of substances related to polyphenol and flavonoids contents were the highest in autoclave extract (30.51 mg/g and 4.78 mg/g, respectively). The DPPH radical scavenging activity was the highest in the autoclave extract (81.80%) at the 5 mg/mL. Autoclave extract exhibited the strongest ABTS radical scavenging activity and reducing power among the three extraction methods. However, ferrous ion chelating, TBA reactive substances and xanthine oxidase inhibition activity of high pressure extract were higher than those of the other extracts. Additionally, the tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities of high pressure extract with a concentration of 1 mg/mL were higher than those of the other extracts. These results suggest that extracts of Hizikia fusiforme have a potential to act as functional materials, and autoclave and high pressure extractions are superior to hot water extraction for enhancement of the biological activity.
The purpose of this study is to determine optimal filtering condition and threshold for the detection of gait-cycles for various walkway slopes as well as gait velocities. Ten young healthy subjects with accelerometer system on thigh and ankle walked on a treadmill at 9 conditions (three speeds and three slopes) for 5 minutes. Two direction signals, i.e. anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) directions, of each sensor (four sensor orientations) were used to detect specific events of gait cycle. Variation of the threshold (from -1G to 1G) and lowpass cutoff frequency (fc) were applied to the event detection and their performance was evaluated according to the error index (EI), which was defined as the combination of the accuracy and false positive rate. Optimal fc and threshold were determined for each slope in terms of the EI. The optimal fc, threshold and their corresponding EI depended much on the walkway slope so that their coefficients of variation (CV) ranged 19~120%. When all data for 3 slopes were used in the identification of optimal conditions for each sensor, the best error indices for all sensor orientations were comparable ranging 1.43~1.76%, but the optimal fc and threshold depended much on the sensor position. The result indicates that the gait-cycle detection robust to walkway slope is possible by threshold method with well-defined filtering condition and threshold.