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본 논문에서는 조립트러스 매립형 합성보의 실험과 해석을 통하여 휨 및 전단의 구조적 거동을 분석한다. 본 합성보는 복부가 개방된 트러스를 콘크리트 속에 매입함으로써 콘크리트와의 맞물림작용 및 일체성이 뛰어남으로 휨재로서 완전합성 거동을 한다. 본 합성보에서는 콘크리트 단면의 복부를 가로지르는 외곽 2열의 강재 복재가 상, 하 접합부로 긴결되어 있어서 철근콘크리트 보의 스터럽(Stirrup)과 같은 전단보강재의 역할을 한다. 그러나 본 합성보에서는 복재 접합부의 강도에 따라서 전단보강재인 경사재 및 수직재의 전단내력이 변화되므로 이에 맞는 구조적 안전성이 확보된 새로운 전단강도식을 제안한다. 실험 및 해석결과, 조립트러스 매립형 합성보의 모든 실험체는 휨강도에 대하여 강재앵커가 있는 완전합성보로 평가되며, 제안된 전단강도식은 구조적 안전성이 충분히 확보된 것으로 평가된다. In this paper, the structural behavior of bending and shear is analyzed through the Composite Beams having Truss Reinforcement Embedded in Concrete experiment and analysis. The composite beams show complete composite behavior as a bending member with excellent interlocking and integration with concrete by embedding a truss with open central parts into the concrete. Two rows of outer web members crossing the center of the concrete section in this composite beam are connected to the upper and lower joints, serving as shear reinforcement such as stirrups on reinforced concrete beams. However, the shear strength of the diagonal and vertical members in the composite beam, which are shear reinforcements, vary depending on the strength of the joints of the composite beams, so a new shear strength formula that ensures structural safety is proposed. As a result of experiments and analyses, all experiments of Composite Beams having Truss Reinforcement Embedded in Concrete are evaluated as complete composite beams with steel anchors for bending strength, and the proposed shear strength formula is evaluated to have sufficient structural safety.
“A thought for a friend” by Taejun Park is a song cherished by many Koreans. The Cheongra hill in this widely loved song is where Youngnam Theological University and Seminary used to locate before it moved to Gyeongsan. The current site used to be called ‘dunghill' as this place was in the outskirt of Daegu with nameless tombs where people used to dump excrement. At this location, the early missionaries established schools, churches, and health clinics as mission base camp. They started the bible study in this spot and founded Daegu Advanced Bible School in 1913. The first principal was Rev. James E. Adams, and Miss Martha Switzer took charge of women's group as a co-principal in 1916. They raised many leaders who led Korean churches. Switzer constructed a women's dormitory and donated the building, which later became renowned in Korean architecture history. However, the Bible school was persecuted and halted during the Japanese colonial period and reopened with the liberation of Korea from Japanese sovereignty after World War II. It had to close its door for a short period again during the Korean War. During the Korean War, the General Assembly Seminary in Seoul moved to Daegu for a temporary period. When it moved back to Seoul after the war, the North Gyeongsang Province Society resolved to establish a seminary and founded a school on April 12, 1954. The new seminary educated students while moving around by renting local churches. In 1960, it settled in the building of the bible school and became a formal education institution. Daegu Advanced Bible School and the Youngnam Theological University and Seminary merged, and the assets and students of Daegu Advanced School belong to the Youngnam Theological University and Seminary. The Youngnam Theological University and Seminary has a responsibility to inherit the spirits of missionaries who taught at the Daegu Advanced Bible School as it was founded on the history of the bible school. Just like the ivy leagues, which started in the early immigration history of the United States to foster many leaders of the country, Youngnam Theological University and Seminary should inherit the spirits of pioneers and build up the churches and the state based on the bible.
The general opinions about human structure are based on dichotomous understanding which claims human being consists of the spirit, soul and the body,. Due to such understanding, the body was regarded as inferior to the spiritual values in Korean churches. Often, the body was understood as a cause of endangering spirits. However, the Old Testament does not understand the human from the dichotomous structure where the spirit is confined in the body according to the Greek philosophy. Instead, it understands spirit as the source of power which enlivens the body. It is also a creation along with the human body. The body of the human being is like a container. When the body collapses, it tends to exhaust the spirit as well. Healthy body and spirit are not separated, and they are related to one another. Thus, monistic understanding that goes beyond the dualistic comprehension is necessary. In the spiritual training, we also need to find a new training skill which uses body based on the new understanding about it. This article explores a way of praying by using a breath, which is one of the most significant elements to maintain the human body. While constancy and concentration are essential factors for prayers, breath can strengthen them. The prayers and asceticism through breath can be found from both the training of Anbansuui in Buddhism and the Jesus Prayer in Christianity. Thus, this article seeks such traditions of prayers and link the way of good breath to prayers for spiritual training. If one can pray all the time with their breath and able to concentrate on it, it will help the spiritual growth of the person.
People grow from their birth to death. While physical growth starts to slow down around the age of 26-27, mental growth is continued even after the slowdown of physical growth. Likewise, spiritual growth is continued throughout one's life. As the Bible says, “Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man” (Luke 2; 52) as well. While physical growth is occurring by taking nutrients in response to organic desires, hunger and thirst, spiritual growth is occurring through making relationship with God as one desires for God. Faith growing means ones views and judgments are maturing. Spiritual maturity signifies one is able to make mature decisions and speculations as s/he deals with her/his surroundings. The ground of spiritual growth comes through fundamental anxieties and impoverished condition of human being. As people go toward God with their problems, God responses to these problems. Thus, people seek God and God shows His presence to the people. Throughout experiencing the presence of God, one gets to know Him deeper and deeper. Therefore, spiritual growth of human being is not taking place by learning the knowledge or concept about God. It is taking place by experiencing God. Therefore, spiritual leaders should focus on experience of God's presence rather than instruct concepts and knowledge about God to her/his students. While spiritual leaders cannot lead the experiences to their students, they can still help the students to focus on God. The way to focus on God is conducted by feeling the breath of God through meditating over people's own problems, nature and the words of God. When one make such attempts, it is very important to distinguish whether the feelings come from evil spirits or God. For the distinctions, Loyola Spiritual Exercise can be integral evaluation criteria along with the Bible. Based on the criteria, spiritual leaders can walk a spiritual journey with his/her trainees. Throughout the spiritual journey and making environment that helps people to be aware of God, spiritual leaders can help people grow spiritually. Thus, based on the Bible passages, this dissertation attempts to suggest a path for those who lost the meaning and direction of their lives and wander around. The main themes of the meditation on this writing are life, mission, Covenant and New Covenant. As one walks along the path, trainees will be able to have new awareness about their lives and live a life accompanied by God.
The growth of Korean churches is declining. The passion for prayer is not like old times, and the level of commitment is decreasing. This is caused from tendency of theology education which just focuses on intellectual discourse. Today's theology regards faith as an act that believes in certain doctrine or creed. It understands faith as mere defense or systematization of dogma. Thus, God is regarded as the one who can be dissected with the sword of rationality rather than the one who is worthy to be awed with trembling and fear. Yet, God in the bible is a holy God, and the highest God who still remains in mystery regardless of one's knowledge about God. No study on God can be complete, and any interpretation on experiencing God should be partial by its nature. People experience strong power and mystery from transcendency of God when they have Numinose experience from meeting God. Such an experience is not explicable with reason. We call the object part of Numinose experience as miracle, and subject part of it as trance. Such miracle and trance are beyond the area of rationality. Thus, they should be understood with the frame of non-reason. The ecstacy that one comes to encounter from Numinose experience is a time to realize the calling and the greatness of God, rather than a mere flimsy feeling. The general stage of people who are called by God and come to realize the calling of God goes in the order of ambition/frustration?experiencing mystery and trance?realization of calling?resolution/obeyance. Such stage was shown from many people including Moses, Elijah, Isaiah, Paul, and Peter. They could continuously bear the work of God thanks to their experience with almighty God. Christians are the people who believes in the word of God and live on the faith from the word. Those believe that God thinks and speaks without rule can speak and act without care about Christian faith. However, those who believe in mysterious and holy God cannot help to go toward God with obeyance with trembling and fear. People can only think and speak within their boundaries of experiences. Thus, ministers who speak the word of God need to meet the most holy God. Such understanding and experience about God will be a starting point to renew the churches and the world, and raise almighty God.
Many Sunday schools in Korea are in both quantitatively and qualitatively crisis. There would be many reasons for the crisis but the biggest reason comes from the capability of teachers of Sunday school. Many churches failed to raise capability and leadership of teachers though they spent a lot of budget and time. Therefore now education for teachers will have to be re-planned in the aspect of leadership training which can lead to guide and raise students well, which is different from previous education merely focused on knowledge exchange. From this treaty, I will find out principle of leadership development for Sunday school teacher base on R. K. Greenleaf`s servant leadership. Traditional leadership theories were developed under elements of leader`s characteristics, participation types and situation variables. Basic character of leaders from general theories of traditional leadership is regulating and ordering people from the top of pyramid structure. Greenleaf calls this concept of leadership as a `leader-first` thought. Regulating and controlling are leader`s roles from `leader-first` concept. However `servant leader` s the concept which was stated by R. K. Greenleaf considers himself as a servant. Servant leader has a mind of `servant - first` . Therefore servant leaders help and co-operate his followers to deal well with tasks. The core of servant leadership is setting a clear purpose, since worry from uncertainty of future can be overcome through the clear purpose. Therefore R. K. Greenleaf emphasizes to see a vision through purpose on rightful value. Also he says listen attentively to what people say is necessary to catch people` s request. It is because listening attentively makes leader to get an answer easily or to attain enlightenment. Finally servant leadership is a leadership theory that makes members to participate in their organization and share visions and wills of organization with other members. Also servant leadership prefers net-work type organization structure which can bear diverse customer`s request through decentralization policy. It is because these days situations that companies are experience and people`s requests are diverse with rapid social changes. For this, servant leadership authorize power and disperse order system. It is a different perspective from previous leadership. Also previous leader focus on increasing productivity through instigate to individual`s competence. Compare to it, servant leadership regards communication in the process of setting a purpose. As a result servant leadership focus on many people to participate voluntarily as much as possible through member`s participation and co - operation. Namely, it can be seen that servant leadership tries to achieve tasks through forming a relationship. It is needed to change structure of education base on the servant leadership. It is because that people who educated in warped structure of education tend to not listen to other people and insist their own assertions and do everything by their intention. To overcome this, direction and purpose of education have to be the education that serve students. Therefore if education until these days was a process that was designed for control and rule people, now it has to be change to the education that can raise people to serve other people. Traditional classes put teachers at the center. However, classes that are based on servant leadership put students to the center. Teachers stay in a position to serve students with supplying and guiding materials to students. Besides teachers become to acknowledge listening attentively to students is a way to understand students better and serve better. Methods to train teachers base on these contents is like this : First, there have to be a subject centered study. Second, it is necessary to use communal education curriculum. Third, it is necessary to have a model of training teachers to raise leadership which is different from existing model that was f
Human beings develop and grow through various attempts from their birth to the death. In the human development, people experience the growth of body and thoughts in physical area, mental area, and spiritual area. In the process of human development, the growth of faith plays significant role that shapes morality and personal value. Growth of faith means development of intelligence, having perspective, maturity of moral judgment, growing the scope of social awareness, finding authoritative position, expanding form of worldview and symbolic functions rather than enthusiastic practice of religious behaviors. Such functions develop with experience of new environment as one grows old, and James Fowler described the experiences in six stages. six stages are “intuitional-reflective stage”, “mythtical-characteristic stage”, “generalizing-conventional stage”, “individual-introspective stage”, “synthesizing stage” and “universal stage”. Thus, good faith means stage that trust and expresses God in higher level of relationship. In this context, Christian education should focus on guidance to level of good faith. For this, Christian education should set proper education purposes and find way to achieve them in each level of faith stage. In other words, church education should focus on unique characteristics of faith and provide continuing education that could go throughout one's life. Thus, it will have to be an education that could foster Christians with deeper and wider understanding about God and get closer to the wholeness of God with time flow.