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Human beings develop and grow through various attempts from their birth to the death. In the human development, people experience the growth of body and thoughts in physical area, mental area, and spiritual area. In the process of human development, the growth of faith plays significant role that shapes morality and personal value. Growth of faith means development of intelligence, having perspective, maturity of moral judgment, growing the scope of social awareness, finding authoritative position, expanding form of worldview and symbolic functions rather than enthusiastic practice of religious behaviors. Such functions develop with experience of new environment as one grows old, and James Fowler described the experiences in six stages. six stages are “intuitional-reflective stage”, “mythtical-characteristic stage”, “generalizing-conventional stage”, “individual-introspective stage”, “synthesizing stage” and “universal stage”. Thus, good faith means stage that trust and expresses God in higher level of relationship. In this context, Christian education should focus on guidance to level of good faith. For this, Christian education should set proper education purposes and find way to achieve them in each level of faith stage. In other words, church education should focus on unique characteristics of faith and provide continuing education that could go throughout one's life. Thus, it will have to be an education that could foster Christians with deeper and wider understanding about God and get closer to the wholeness of God with time flow.
“A thought for a friend” by Taejun Park is a song cherished by many Koreans. The Cheongra hill in this widely loved song is where Youngnam Theological University and Seminary used to locate before it moved to Gyeongsan. The current site used to be called ‘dunghill' as this place was in the outskirt of Daegu with nameless tombs where people used to dump excrement. At this location, the early missionaries established schools, churches, and health clinics as mission base camp. They started the bible study in this spot and founded Daegu Advanced Bible School in 1913. The first principal was Rev. James E. Adams, and Miss Martha Switzer took charge of women's group as a co-principal in 1916. They raised many leaders who led Korean churches. Switzer constructed a women's dormitory and donated the building, which later became renowned in Korean architecture history. However, the Bible school was persecuted and halted during the Japanese colonial period and reopened with the liberation of Korea from Japanese sovereignty after World War II. It had to close its door for a short period again during the Korean War. During the Korean War, the General Assembly Seminary in Seoul moved to Daegu for a temporary period. When it moved back to Seoul after the war, the North Gyeongsang Province Society resolved to establish a seminary and founded a school on April 12, 1954. The new seminary educated students while moving around by renting local churches. In 1960, it settled in the building of the bible school and became a formal education institution. Daegu Advanced Bible School and the Youngnam Theological University and Seminary merged, and the assets and students of Daegu Advanced School belong to the Youngnam Theological University and Seminary. The Youngnam Theological University and Seminary has a responsibility to inherit the spirits of missionaries who taught at the Daegu Advanced Bible School as it was founded on the history of the bible school. Just like the ivy leagues, which started in the early immigration history of the United States to foster many leaders of the country, Youngnam Theological University and Seminary should inherit the spirits of pioneers and build up the churches and the state based on the bible.
The general opinions about human structure are based on dichotomous understanding which claims human being consists of the spirit, soul and the body,. Due to such understanding, the body was regarded as inferior to the spiritual values in Korean churches. Often, the body was understood as a cause of endangering spirits. However, the Old Testament does not understand the human from the dichotomous structure where the spirit is confined in the body according to the Greek philosophy. Instead, it understands spirit as the source of power which enlivens the body. It is also a creation along with the human body. The body of the human being is like a container. When the body collapses, it tends to exhaust the spirit as well. Healthy body and spirit are not separated, and they are related to one another. Thus, monistic understanding that goes beyond the dualistic comprehension is necessary. In the spiritual training, we also need to find a new training skill which uses body based on the new understanding about it. This article explores a way of praying by using a breath, which is one of the most significant elements to maintain the human body. While constancy and concentration are essential factors for prayers, breath can strengthen them. The prayers and asceticism through breath can be found from both the training of Anbansuui in Buddhism and the Jesus Prayer in Christianity. Thus, this article seeks such traditions of prayers and link the way of good breath to prayers for spiritual training. If one can pray all the time with their breath and able to concentrate on it, it will help the spiritual growth of the person.
People grow from their birth to death. While physical growth starts to slow down around the age of 26-27, mental growth is continued even after the slowdown of physical growth. Likewise, spiritual growth is continued throughout one's life. As the Bible says, “Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man” (Luke 2; 52) as well. While physical growth is occurring by taking nutrients in response to organic desires, hunger and thirst, spiritual growth is occurring through making relationship with God as one desires for God. Faith growing means ones views and judgments are maturing. Spiritual maturity signifies one is able to make mature decisions and speculations as s/he deals with her/his surroundings. The ground of spiritual growth comes through fundamental anxieties and impoverished condition of human being. As people go toward God with their problems, God responses to these problems. Thus, people seek God and God shows His presence to the people. Throughout experiencing the presence of God, one gets to know Him deeper and deeper. Therefore, spiritual growth of human being is not taking place by learning the knowledge or concept about God. It is taking place by experiencing God. Therefore, spiritual leaders should focus on experience of God's presence rather than instruct concepts and knowledge about God to her/his students. While spiritual leaders cannot lead the experiences to their students, they can still help the students to focus on God. The way to focus on God is conducted by feeling the breath of God through meditating over people's own problems, nature and the words of God. When one make such attempts, it is very important to distinguish whether the feelings come from evil spirits or God. For the distinctions, Loyola Spiritual Exercise can be integral evaluation criteria along with the Bible. Based on the criteria, spiritual leaders can walk a spiritual journey with his/her trainees. Throughout the spiritual journey and making environment that helps people to be aware of God, spiritual leaders can help people grow spiritually. Thus, based on the Bible passages, this dissertation attempts to suggest a path for those who lost the meaning and direction of their lives and wander around. The main themes of the meditation on this writing are life, mission, Covenant and New Covenant. As one walks along the path, trainees will be able to have new awareness about their lives and live a life accompanied by God.
The growth of Korean churches is declining. The passion for prayer is not like old times, and the level of commitment is decreasing. This is caused from tendency of theology education which just focuses on intellectual discourse. Today's theology regards faith as an act that believes in certain doctrine or creed. It understands faith as mere defense or systematization of dogma. Thus, God is regarded as the one who can be dissected with the sword of rationality rather than the one who is worthy to be awed with trembling and fear. Yet, God in the bible is a holy God, and the highest God who still remains in mystery regardless of one's knowledge about God. No study on God can be complete, and any interpretation on experiencing God should be partial by its nature. People experience strong power and mystery from transcendency of God when they have Numinose experience from meeting God. Such an experience is not explicable with reason. We call the object part of Numinose experience as miracle, and subject part of it as trance. Such miracle and trance are beyond the area of rationality. Thus, they should be understood with the frame of non-reason. The ecstacy that one comes to encounter from Numinose experience is a time to realize the calling and the greatness of God, rather than a mere flimsy feeling. The general stage of people who are called by God and come to realize the calling of God goes in the order of ambition/frustration?experiencing mystery and trance?realization of calling?resolution/obeyance. Such stage was shown from many people including Moses, Elijah, Isaiah, Paul, and Peter. They could continuously bear the work of God thanks to their experience with almighty God. Christians are the people who believes in the word of God and live on the faith from the word. Those believe that God thinks and speaks without rule can speak and act without care about Christian faith. However, those who believe in mysterious and holy God cannot help to go toward God with obeyance with trembling and fear. People can only think and speak within their boundaries of experiences. Thus, ministers who speak the word of God need to meet the most holy God. Such understanding and experience about God will be a starting point to renew the churches and the world, and raise almighty God.
Many Sunday schools in Korea are in both quantitatively and qualitatively crisis. There would be many reasons for the crisis but the biggest reason comes from the capability of teachers of Sunday school. Many churches failed to raise capability and leadership of teachers though they spent a lot of budget and time. Therefore now education for teachers will have to be re-planned in the aspect of leadership training which can lead to guide and raise students well, which is different from previous education merely focused on knowledge exchange. From this treaty, I will find out principle of leadership development for Sunday school teacher base on R. K. Greenleaf`s servant leadership. Traditional leadership theories were developed under elements of leader`s characteristics, participation types and situation variables. Basic character of leaders from general theories of traditional leadership is regulating and ordering people from the top of pyramid structure. Greenleaf calls this concept of leadership as a `leader-first` thought. Regulating and controlling are leader`s roles from `leader-first` concept. However `servant leader` s the concept which was stated by R. K. Greenleaf considers himself as a servant. Servant leader has a mind of `servant - first` . Therefore servant leaders help and co-operate his followers to deal well with tasks. The core of servant leadership is setting a clear purpose, since worry from uncertainty of future can be overcome through the clear purpose. Therefore R. K. Greenleaf emphasizes to see a vision through purpose on rightful value. Also he says listen attentively to what people say is necessary to catch people` s request. It is because listening attentively makes leader to get an answer easily or to attain enlightenment. Finally servant leadership is a leadership theory that makes members to participate in their organization and share visions and wills of organization with other members. Also servant leadership prefers net-work type organization structure which can bear diverse customer`s request through decentralization policy. It is because these days situations that companies are experience and people`s requests are diverse with rapid social changes. For this, servant leadership authorize power and disperse order system. It is a different perspective from previous leadership. Also previous leader focus on increasing productivity through instigate to individual`s competence. Compare to it, servant leadership regards communication in the process of setting a purpose. As a result servant leadership focus on many people to participate voluntarily as much as possible through member`s participation and co - operation. Namely, it can be seen that servant leadership tries to achieve tasks through forming a relationship. It is needed to change structure of education base on the servant leadership. It is because that people who educated in warped structure of education tend to not listen to other people and insist their own assertions and do everything by their intention. To overcome this, direction and purpose of education have to be the education that serve students. Therefore if education until these days was a process that was designed for control and rule people, now it has to be change to the education that can raise people to serve other people. Traditional classes put teachers at the center. However, classes that are based on servant leadership put students to the center. Teachers stay in a position to serve students with supplying and guiding materials to students. Besides teachers become to acknowledge listening attentively to students is a way to understand students better and serve better. Methods to train teachers base on these contents is like this : First, there have to be a subject centered study. Second, it is necessary to use communal education curriculum. Third, it is necessary to have a model of training teachers to raise leadership which is different from existing model that was f
From time to time, the medieval times is called as the era of darkness. Nevertheless, the medieval times left a legacy of faith with the longest history in Church history. In addition, many elements that started from medieval times such as education in monastery, catholic school, colleges became the base of Western education today. In this respect, study about Christian education which started from the medieval era gives important clues for understanding and developing an archetype of education structure today. The purpose of medieval Christian education originates from escaping anxiety that comes from sense of guilty and reprobation in God-oriented world-view. This was highly influenced by St. Augustine's the original sin theory. St. Augustine asserted a human-being is sinner who disobeyed God, and therefore it is impossible for every human-being to avoid suffering that causes from one's own sin. Debated issues about penance, indulgences, and asceticism in medieval era can be seen as people's struggling against one's anxiety that caused from sense of guilty. In this process, scholasticism which prioritizes power of faith had developed in medieval Christian education, leaving philosophical rationality behind. The way of medieval Christian education had formed with meditation based on mysticism, sacraments and feasts based on symbolism, and many icons. The mystical approach centered around monastery highly developed with its purpose in amalgamation of soul of people and God. Meanwhile, symbolism was very effective way for illiterate barbarians. However, this lost its educational significance and degenerated into idolatry with symbol's mystification. It was abbeys, colleges, and Catholic Church schools that Christian education was held in the medieval era. Spiritual training was emphasized in abbeys for monks who came to abbeys with rejecting secularization of faith. Candidates for priest learned practical works in churches in Catholic Church while aristocrats' children learned things that are needed for their daily lives. In college, in addition, took the role of teaching 1) spreading of freedom 2) retaining of classic culture and 3) revival of art and literature with having its base in rationality. This spirit from medieval college have its influence to many universities even until 21st century. Representative educators in medieval period are St. Columba (521-597), St. Thomas Aquinas (1223-1274), and Geert Groote (1340-1384). Unlike mystics, these people interacted with society frequently, and this influenced a lot on education and social reformation. Looking at medieval education activities and spirit show us where our education will have to go. In particular, it is necessary to develop spirit in monastery education and symbolism from medieval period since this is education and legacy of faith that protestant have lost. Furthermore, today's purpose in Christian education will have to be reshaped as making integrated human-being and social reformation rather than expanding the number of congregation.
Recently, debates about spirituality are going on with increased interests. Such phenomenon is coming from our society's lack of spirituality rather than abundance of spirituality. This shows Korean churches' inabilities in giving alternative answers to society that experiences fragmentization. The reason for such inabilities could be found quantitative development without qualitative development. While Korean churches have experienced enormous quantitative development for last one century, it failed to have corresponding quantitative development. The common characteristic of the spiritual leaders in the history is attempting to find the core of faith through ceaseless self-reflections and balancing unevenness in their societies. The the spiritual leaders in the history could go toward wilderness beyond structures when churches were caught in restraining structures and they could go toward God as daringly choosing honesty and poverty when their societies were caught by materialism. Also, they found the core of the faith as they recovered the gospel when the faith was going toward idolization by tradition and rituals. Further, they went toward God with prayers and services the gospel was hidden by secular knowledge. As those the spiritual leaders did, nowadays' Korean churches need education and trainings through proper understanding about spirituality. Now, Korean churches should be able to overcome various misunderstandings about spirituality and recover the true Christian spirituality in order to make progressive changes in society. The true Christian spirituality is spirituality with general principle in understanding trinity and it should not lean toward individualism, mysticism or behaviorism. It is also a form of faith that balances between the gospel, prayer and service. Service without the gospel and prayer degrade to behaviorism and the gospel without prayer and service demote to intellectualism and lose the ability to change society. Further, prayer without service and the gospel has danger to fall into individualism and mysticism. Hence, Korean churches should overcome spiritual extremism and imbalance and should be able to teach and train congregations through finding motif for change in the tradition of the gospel of God. In this way, Korean churches will be able to have sound spirituality and finally be able to change the society they are situated in.