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Background and Objectives Patients with tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy are increasing, and cases of tonsillectomy & adenoidectomy also are steadily on the rise. However, the awareness of patients visiting outpatient is much lower. This study was performed to understand the cognitive level of general public associated with tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy and to suggest the needs of educational program and promotion. Subjects and Method Prospective survey using structured questionnaire was conducted for 100 parents of patients before the age of 10 who were scheduled to undergo tonsillectomy & adenoidectomy. Results The total percentage of correct answers in questions related to the awareness level of tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy was 51.7%. In particular, the lowest awareness level corresponded to questions regarding post-operative complications and notes. More detailed information regarding post-operative course and notes was required of 47% of the subjects. Conclusion The survey results indicate poor public awareness about tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy, suggesting more efforts on the behalf of Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Korean J Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 2014;57(5):325-8
This study examines the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities and Investor Relations (IR). Managers of companies that actively carry out CSR value honesty, trust and ethics (Jones, 1995). As a result, financial reporting of CSR firms is highly transparent due to low incentive to earning management and responsible management decisions (Kim et al, 2012; Lim and Choi, 2013; Choi and Moon, 2013). In addition, the managers of firms that faithfully carry out CSR activities not only emphasizes accounting transparency, but also voluntarily disclose information related to the firm, because they have a strong incentive to have a friendly relationship with stakeholders and to promote their positive image in the capital market. There are several methods of voluntary disclosure. IR is the means of voluntarily providing investors with comprehensive information about the firm's management and future prospects (Son and Jeon, 1999; Kim, 2008). Firms can achieve the effect of increasing corporate value by mitigating information asymmetry between the company and stakeholders and enhancing the company's image through IR. Therefore, firms that are actively carrying out CSR activities are expected to provide various information to stakeholders through IR, because they are more likely to communicate with their stakeholders and share their vision and strategy. The results of the empirical analysis also show that CSR firms are more likely to provide information to stakeholders through IR. This study has differentiated contribution from the preceding studies as follows. This study extends the scope of the CSR-related research by confirming that the significant positive association between CSR activities and IR. Next, our study provide additional explanation of the managers incentive for corporate disclosure. We suggest that managers of firms that actively carry out CSR activities will hold IR to reduce the information asymmetry between managers and stakeholders and to highlight the company's positive image. 본 연구는 기업의 사회적 책임(Corporate Social Responsibility; CSR) 활동이 기업설명회 (Investor Relations; IR) 개최와 어떠한 관련성이 있는가를 살펴보고자 한다. CSR을 활발하게 수행하는 기업의 경영자들은 정직, 신뢰 그리고 윤리를 중요하게 생각하기 때문에 (Jones, 1995), 이익조정에 대한 유인이 낮고 책임 있는 경영 의사결정을 해서 재무보고의 투명성이 높다(Kim et al, 2012; 임형주와 최종서, 2013; 최현정과 문두철, 2013). 또한 CSR 활동을 충실히 수행하는 기업의 경영자는 윤리적이고 이해관계자를 고려한 의사결정을 하기 때문에 회계정보의 작성에 투명성을 강조할 뿐만 아니라, 이해관계자들과 우호적인 관계를 맺으려하고 이들 기업의 긍정적인 이미지를 시장에 홍보하려는 유인이 크기 때문에 기업과 관련된 정보를 자발적으로 공시할 수 있다. 기업의 자발적 공시 방법에는 여러 가지가 있지만 기업설명회는 기업이 자본시장에서 제대로 가치를 평가 받기 위해 투자자에게 기업의 경영내용 및 미래전망에 대한 포괄적인 정보를 자발적으로 제공하는 공시 수단이며, 기업은 기업설명회 개최를 통해 기업과 외부이해관계자 간의 정보비대칭을 완화하고 기업의 이미지를 제고하여 기업가치를 증가시키는 효과를 얻을 수 있다. 따라서 CSR 활동을 적극적으로 수행하는 기업일수록 이해관계자들과 적극적으로 소통하려고 하고 기업의 비전과 전략을 공유할 가능성이 크기 때문에, 기업설명회 개최를 통해서 가급적 다양한 정보를 이해관계자들에게 제공하고 소통할 것으로 예상된다. 실증분석결과도 본 연구의 예상과 일치하게 CSR 활동을 활발히 수행하는 기업일수록 기업설명회를 개최를 통하여 자발적으로 이해관계자들에게 정보를 제공하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구는 선행연구 들과 다음과 같은 차별화된 기여점을 가진다. 본 연구는 CSR 활동과 기업설명회 개최 간에 유의한 관련성이 존재한다는 것을 확인함으로써, CSR 관련 연구 범위를 확장하였다. 다음으로 CSR 활동을 활발히 수행하는 기업일수록 기업과 외부이해관계자 간의 정보비대칭 을 줄이고 기업의 긍정적인 이미지를 부각시키기 위해 기업설명회를 개최한다는 것을 제시함으로써 경영자의 공시유인에 대한 추가적인 설명을 제공하였다.
This paper is written following an analysis of occurrence trend of industrial disaster in manufacturing industry. One of major reason of industrial accident is unsafe action caused by lack of work supervision. so we have surveyed the understanding level of supervisors for industrial safety and their education of industrial safety which is forced by industrial law. We have got the result that the supervisor’s education is necessary to prevent industrial disaster but it’s not fit for their own workplace for various reasons from the survey and analysis. I would like to suggest effective solutions. The institute of education should train that they can execute safety and health works themselves by classification of the industrial category, company scale and located region. Also, government should endow supervisors with authority and responsibility for the activation of education system. Finally, government should support the expense of education to medium and small-sized enterprises especially, and they should be interested in the attendance and execution of education. They will achieve the goal to prevent industrial disasters in manufacturing industry through the enforcement of effective supervisor system as per the remark mentioned above.
This paper examines the relation between industry diversification and the frequency of voluntary disclosure. As reported in previous studies, firms operating in several industries have higher information asymmetry and agency problems between managers and stakeholders because of the increase in organizational complexity(Rajan et al., 2000; Lai and Liu, 2018). The results of this study suggest that diversified firms are negatively valued in capital markets compared to focused firms, such as discounting in corporate value and increase in cost of capital(Lang and Stulz, 1994; Berger and Ofek, 1995). As information asymmetry and agent problems negatively affect firms in these diversified firms, stakeholders will require more information to effectively monitor managers by reducing information asymmetry. In addition, managers are expected to increase the incentive to voluntarily provide information to the market in order to improve the negative image of the company and to prevent discounting of corporate value. The empirical results show that there is a positive relationship between firm diversification level and voluntary disclosure frequency. This result means that managers in diversified firms voluntarily disclosure more information of the firms to reduce the high information asymmetry of the diversified company and to send the positive signal of the company. This study has the following contributions. First, this paper extend the study on diversification. Diversification studies have only been conducted on firm value and cost of capital(Jensen, 1986; Stulz, 1990; Jensen and Murphy, 1990; Denis et al., 1997; Hyland and Diltz, 2002). However, this study confirms that firm's voluntary disclosure policies can be changed according to the level of diversification of firms. Second, Second, this study provides additional explanations for the incentives of disclosure. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that managers in the diversified firms voluntarily provide information related to companies in order to prevent discount on firm value in the capital market. In addition, this study confirms that the level of disclosure is higher in an environments where information asymmetry is high such as diversified companies. This can be reconfirmed as a means of reducing information asymmetry and monitoring managers in diversified companies. 본 연구는 기업의 사업다각화가 자발적공시 빈도에 미치는 영향을 살펴보고자 한다. 선행연구들에서 보고된 바와 같이 여러 산업에서 사업을 영위하는 기업은 집중화된 기업에 비해 조직구조 복잡성의 증가로 인해 경영자와 외부이해관계자 사이의 높은 정보비대칭과 대리인문제를 가지게 될 가능성이 높다(Rajan et al.. 2000; Lai and Liu 2018). 이로 인해 선행연구들은 다각화된 기업은 그렇지 않은 기업보다 자본 조달에 어려움을 겪게 되고, 기업의 가치 감소나 자기자본비용 증가 등과 같이 자본시장에서 부정적인 평가를 받게 된다는 것을 보고하였다(Lang and Stulz 1994; Berger and Ofek 1995; Thomas 2002). 이와 같이 사업다각화 기업이 집중화된 기업보다 높은 정보비대칭 및 대리인 문제의 발생가능성으로 인해 부정적인 평가를 받게 됨에 따라, 외부이해관계자들은 정보비대칭을 줄이고 경영자를 효과적으로 감시하기 위해 더 많은 정보를 요구할 것이다(Cahan et al. 2005). 자본시장 참여자들과 우호적인 관계를 유지하고자 하는 경영자들도 투자자들이 기업을 보다 쉽게 평가하도록 기업과 관련된 정보를 시장에 자발적으로 제공함으로써 정보비대칭을 줄이고자 할 것으로 예상된다(Thomas 2002; Cahan et al. 2005). 본 연구는 이러한 예상을 검증하기 위해 2002년부터 2014까지 유가증권시장 및 코스닥시장에 상장되어 있는 기업을 대상으로 종속변수인 자발적공시는 자율공시 및 공정공시 빈도로 측정하였고, 독립변수인 사업다각화는 기업이 보고한 사업부문 수를 가지고 회귀분석을 수행하였다. 실증분석 결과 기업의 사업다각화와 자발적공시 빈도 간에는 양(+)의 관련성이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 실증분석 결과는 다각화된 기업에서 경영자가 높은 정보비대칭을 줄이고 시장에 긍정적인 신호를 보내기 위해 기업과 관련된 정보를 적극적으로 공시하는 것으로 해석 할 수 있다.
Quasi-periodic bursts of edge magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activities, called edge localized modes (ELMs), have been observed in many tokamaks during the H-mode. The high level of heat and particle transport associated with ELMs may cause serious damage to divertors or plasma facing components. It is therefore important to understand the underlying physics of ELMs. We have numerically investigated the effect of the X-point on the stability of the peeling mode, which is thought to be one of the MHD instabilities responsible for small ELMs. Equilibria with pressure and current profiles, which are unstable to the pure peeling mode for moderately elongated plasma, have been used. The X-point in a diverted plasma has been simulated by introducing of a hump in the plasma boundary. The position, depth and width of the X-point have been varied, and their effect on the stability of the peeling mode has been investigated. We have shown that the peelingmode growth rate decreases as the depth increases. This effect is greater for smaller widths for all positions of the X-point considered. Therefore, a sharper X-point is more efficient in stabilizing the peeling mode. Increasing the depth acts to increase the magnetic shear, the stabilizing effect of which has been shown to have very little dependence on the position or the width of the X- point.
By changing the elongation and the triangularity in the standard-aspect-ratio tokamak, we havenumerically investigated the effect of the shaping of the plasma boundary on the stabilization of thecoupled peeling-ballooning magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) mode which is found to be responsiblefor type-I edge-localized modes. For elliptic plasma, almost no stability improvement for very lowmagnetic shear and a moderate improvement for higher shear have been observed as the elongationis increased. However, a higher pressure gradient can be allowed over wide range of magnetic shearwithout destabilizing the edge MHD instabilities, either when the elongation is increased for fixedfinite triangularity or when the triangularity is increased for fixed elongation.
MHD instabilities associated with Edge-localized modes (ELMs) are the pressure-gradient-driven ballooning mode, the edge-current-(gradient)-driven peeling mode, and the combined peeling-ballooning mode. We have investigated the effect of the properties of the X-point on the stability of the pure ballooning mode. The diverted configuration is simulated by the introduction of a hump in the plasma boundary. The result shows that, unlike the peeling mode, the position of the X-point is important in stabilizing the ballooning mode.
With the growing demand for energy, and subsequently growing greenhouse gas emissions, it is vital to explore alternative cleanersources of energy and incorporate them into the existing power system before the global resources are depleted and damaged beyondrecovery. This paper targets India, an emerging giant, and will explore the integration of renewable resource generation into thepower grid, utilizing the smart grid technology. The integration will be investigated through simulation using the HOMER to obtainthe optimum system, based on cost of energy and emissions. The simulated scenario is based in Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India,and the proposed model includes looking at the electricity consumption and generation, also scaled down to 0.001%, and exploringways to improve the electricity grid’s efficiency. This is accomplished by the integration of renewable energy resources, and thedemand and supply side management of the utilities. The simulation result shows that the optimal system can include the renewablegenerations to serve the balance load from existing thermal generation.
In most cases, there is a substantial lack of weather data for renewable energy feasibility simulation. In this reason, generating weather data from limited monthly average information is essential in an implementation and simulation of smart grid system with a renewable energy. To predict solar radiation sequence and reduce the estimated error of the solar radiation in smart grid simulation,a novel solar data generating scheme which is called hybrid method of Markov transition matrices (MTM) and autoregressive model is developed. For case study to prove excellence of proposed hybrid method, an optimal MTM to estimate the daily solar radiation of Singapore is obtained by exploiting a historical data based on daily global solar radiation. Simulation results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) of proposed scheme is improved by approximately 50% comparing to that of the conventional MTM scheme.