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We report four unusual cases of upper eyelid retraction following periorbital trauma. Four previously healthy patients were evaluated for unilateral upper eyelid retraction following periorbital trauma. A 31-year-old man (Case 1) and a 24-year-old man (Case 2) presented with left upper eyelid retraction which developed after blow-out fractures, a 44-year-old woman (Case 3) presented with left upper eyelid retraction secondary to a periorbital contusion that occurred one week prior, and a 56-year-old man (Case 4) presented with left upper eyelid retraction that developed 1 month after a lower canalicular laceration was sustained during a traffic accident. The authors performed a thyroid function test and orbital computed tomography (CT) in all cases. Thyroid function was normal in all patients, CT showed an adhesion of the superior rectus muscle and superior oblique muscle in the first case and diffuse thickening of the superior rectus muscle and levator complex in the third case. CT showed no specific findings in the second or fourth cases. Upper eyelid retraction due to superior complex adhesion can be considered one of the complications of periorbital trauma.
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical course of visual acuity and foveal thickness in the idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) after a vitrectomy with the use of triamcinolone. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 30 patients (30 eyes) with ERM that were treated by vitrectomy from 2004 to 2008. Visual acuity and foveal thickness from optical coherence tomography imaging was obtained preoperatively and at every postoperative follow-up visit. Results: Visual acuity improved by two or more lines of vision in 30%, 50%, 60%, and 70%, and stayed the same within ±1 line in 47%, 50%, 40%, and 30% at one month, three months, five months, and seven months after surgery. Twenty-three percents of the subjects deteriorated by two or more lines of vision within one month after surgery. None of the subjects had reduced vision three months after surgery. Foveal thickness decreased significantly after surgery. The mean thickness was 409.7±107.9 ㎛ before surgery and 288.6±66.1 ㎛ seven months after surgery. Parameters which were significantly correlated with the final visual acuity included preoperative visual acuity (0.683), preoperative foveal thickness (0.544), and final foveal thickness (0.643) (p<0.005). Conclusions: Foveal thickness and visual acuity improved until seven months after the vitrectomy in patients with idiopathic ERM. Preoperative visual acuity, foveal thickness, and final foveal thickness had a significant correlation with the final visual acuity.
A typical protein chip is defined as a piece of glass on which different protein molecules have been arrayed at separate locations in an ordered manner thus forming a microscopic array. Microarray technology is in the center of the tools for large scale and high throughput post-genomic research and diagnosis. Protein chip technology has shown its great potential in basic research, diagnostics and drug discovery. It has been applied to analyze antibody-antigen, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-lipid and protein-small molecule interactions, as well as enzyme-substrate interactions. Various protein chip diagnostic kits were developed for the diagnosis of wide range of disease including cancers and SARS. In this review, the latest technologies of protein chip are discussed in various aspects with its application in molecular diagnosis. Protein chips may not only change current medical diagnostic practices like the introduction of point of care test products but also have a significant potential to improve human healthcare service in the future.
Wellbore surveying is the interactive process used to obtain wellbore positions according to well trajectory which connects surface coordinates to subsurface coordinates. The measured values such as the measured depth, inclination, and azimuth are used to calculate well paths with a specified reference system. However, errors exist between the true wellbore position and surveyed wellbore position, including depth measurement errors of the drillstring and wireline, misalignment errors, geomagnetic model, and magnetic interference errors. Therefore understanding and evaluating wellbore positional errors is critical for hitting reservoir targets, collision avoidance, and drilling relief wells. In this paper, wellbore positional uncertainty has been reviewed and the application of survey corrections in single and multiple wells has been investigated. 시추공 위치측정은 지표좌표에서 지하좌표로 연결된 시추궤도에 맞춰 굴착하면서 시추공 위치를 파악하기위해 위치자료를 취득하는 일련의 과정이다. 측정된 시추공 위치정보인 측정깊이, 경사각 그리고 방위각을 바탕으로기준점으로부터 시추공 위치를 계산한다. 그러나 시추공 위치측정 과정에서 측정위치의 참값과 측정값 사이의 오차가 존재하며 대표적인 오차는 시추스트링과 송신케이블 길이변화, 위치측정기 기울어짐, 자기장 모델 오차와 시추스트링 자기간섭이다. 따라서 시추공 위치오차의 이해와 검토는 목적한 저류층의 굴착, 인접공과의 충돌방지 및 구조정시추 시 중요하다. 이 논문에서는 시추공 위치오차에 대해서 알아보고, 단일 및 다중 시추공에서의 오차 보정의 적용성을 분석하였다
The way to accomplish effectively the organizational objective lies in the fulfillment of goals on the organizational level as well as individual levels. But most of organizational members are, to a certain degree, confronted with stress and thus have difficulties in attaining the organizational goals. In the organizational study, however, there is no general agreement on the meaning of stress and the methods of measuring it are differently used among the researchers. The purpose of this paper is to offer theoretical framework in stress in order to faciliate a greater understanding definition of stress, general adaptation syndrome(GAS), eustress and distress, stressors, moderators of stress, outcomes of stress, and build the theoretical model. The definition of stress is an adaptive response, mediated by individual differences and/or psychological processes, that is consequences of any external(environment) action, situation, or event that places excessive psychological and/or physical demands on person. The four types of stressors are individual-level stressors, group-level stressors, organizational stressors, extraorganizational stressors. The moderators of stress are social support, coping, hardiness, cognitive complexity, and control. The effects of stress are many and varied. Some, of course, are positive such as self-motivation, stimulation to work harder, and increased inspiration to live better life. However, many are disruptive and potentially dangerous. Shuler(1980) identified three categories of potential effects of stress: physiological response, psychological response, behavior response. Finally based on the major components of stress I develop the theoretical model of stress.
Fe solubility in AZ91 alloy melts was measured by a new method designed for removal of Al_(8)(Mn,Fe)_(5) inclusions. In the AZ91 alloy melts, Al_(8)(Mn,Fe)_(5) precipitates were formed due to supersaturated Mn and Fe, but all precipitates were not settled down from the melts and hence part of them was included in the samples for measuring Fe solubility. This means that the solubility measured from these samples is higher than the true solubility. In the present study, it was shown that these Al_(8)(Mn,Fe)_(5) inclusions could be separated from the samples by the new method. As a result, the Fe solubility measured by the present method was lower than the previous solubility data. Amount of the unsettled Al_(8)(Mn,Fe)_(5) inclusions was estimated to be 59-148 ppm. It was also observed that Fe contents in Al_(8)(Mn,Fe)_(5) were varied with the Fe and Mn content in AZ91 alloy melts.