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Purpose: Although the analgesic effects of corticosteroids have been well documented,little information is available on periarticular injection (PI) containing corticosteroidsfor early postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We performed a prospective double-blind randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an intraoperative corticosteroid PI in patients undergoing TKA. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six consecutive female patients undergoingbilateral staged TKA were randomized to receive steroid or non-steroid PI, with 3 months separating the procedures. The steroid group received PI with a mixture containing triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg). The non-steroid group receivedthe same injection mixture without corticosteroid. During the postoperative period, nighttime pain, functional recovery [straight leg raising (SLR) ability and maximal flexion], patient satisfaction, and complications were recorded. Short-term postoperative clinical scores and patient satisfaction were evaluated at 6 months. Results: The pain level was significantly lower in the PI steroid than the non-steroid group on the night of the operation (VAS, 1.2 vs. 2.3; p=0.021). Reboundpain was observed in both groups at POD1 (VAS, 3.2 vs. 3.8; p=0.248), but pain remained at a low level thereafter. No significant differences were seen in maximal flexion, frequency of acute rescuer, clinical scores, and patient satisfaction. The steroid group was able to perform SLR earlier than the non-steroid group (p=0.013). The incidence of complications was similar between the groups. Conclusion:PI containing a corticosteroid provided an additional pain-relieving effect on the night of the operation. In addition, corticosteroid PI did not increase the perioperative complications of TKA.