http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
In this paper, we propose a new NLM(NMF-based LDA Mixture) algorithm for real-time face recognition system. This system greatly consists of the two parts: 1) face extraction part; 2) face recognition part. In the face extraction part we applied subtraction image, color filtering, eyes and mouth region detection, and normalization method, and then in the face recognition part we used NLM in extracted face candidate region images. The existing recognition system using only PCA(Principal Component Analysis) showed low recognition rates, and it was hard in the recognition system using only LDA(Linear Discriminants Analysis) to apply LDA directly when the training set is small. To overcome these shortcomings, we reduced dimension as the matrix that had non-negative value to be different from former eigenfaces and then applied LDA to the matrix in the proposed system. We have experimented using self-organized DAUFace database and ORL database offered by AT&T laboratory in Cambridge, U.K. to evaluated the performance of the proposed system. The experimental results showed that the proposed method outperformed PCA, LDA, ICA(Independent Component Analysis) and PCA-based LDA mixture method within the framework of recognition accuracy.
Background: Third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-TKIs) have proven efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with the T790M mutation. However, because 50% of patients with acquired resistance do not harbor the T790M mutation, retreatment with first or second-generation EGFR-TKI may be a viable therapeutic option. Here, we identified positive response predictors to retreatment in patients switched to a different EGFR-TKI following initial treatment failure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the EMR of 42 NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations whose cancers progressed following initial treatment with gefitinib or erlotinib and who were switched to a different 1st generation EGFR-TKI. We analyzed the relationship between clinicopathologic parameters and positive clinical outcomes. Results: 30 received gefitinib and 12 received erlotinib as their 1st EGFR-TKI. Following retreatment with a different EGFR-TKI, the overall response and disease control rates were 21.4% and 64.3%, respectively. There was no significant association between their overall responses. The median progression-free survival (PFS) after retreatment was 2.0 months. However, PFS was significantly longer in patients whose time to progression was ≥10 months following initial EGFR-TKI treatment, who had a mutation of exon 19 or whose treatment interval was <90 days. Conclusions: For patients with resistance to initial EGFR-TKI therapy, switched EGFR-TKI retreatment may be a salvage therapy for patients possessing positive response predictors.
Background: Third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-TKIs) have proved efficacious in treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with acquired resistance resulting from the T790M mutation. However, since almost 50% patients with the acquired resistance do not harbor the T790M mutation, retreatment with first- or second-generation EGFR-TKIs may be a more viable therapeutic option. Here, we identified positive response predictors to retreatment, in patients who switched to a different EGFR-TKI, following initial treatment failure. Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 42 NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations, whose cancers had progressed following initial treatment with gefitinib or erlotinib, and who had switched to a different firstgeneration EGFR-TKI during subsequent retreatment. To identify high response rate predictors in the changed EGFR-TKI retreatment, we analyzed the relationship between clinical and demographic parameters, and positive clinical outcomes, following retreatment with EGFR-TKI. Results: Overall, 30 (71.4%) patients received gefitinib and 12 (28.6%) patients received erlotinib as their first EGFR-TKI treatment. Following retreatment with a different EGFR-TKI, the overall response and disease control rates were 21.4% and 64.3%, respectively. There was no significant association between their overall responses. The median progressionfree survival (PFS) after retreatment was 2.0 months. However, PFS was significantly longer in patients whose time to progression was ≥10 months following initial EGFR-TKI treatment, who had a mutation of exon 19, or whose treatment interval was <90 days. Conclusion: In patients with acquired resistance to initial EGFR-TKI therapy, switched EGFR-TKI retreatment may be a salvage therapy for individuals possessing positive retreatment response predictors.
Objectives : In this study, the efficiency of dissolved oxygen removal was evaluated in the domestic membrane degassing (MDG) process for ultrapure water production. 3M (Liqui-celTM) is mainly used for membrane degassing (MDG) process in ultrapure water. The domestic MDG process is used in CO2 gas processes in petrochemical processes. The water quality of 3M (Liqui-celTM) process managed below 1 μg/L. The efficiency of dissolved oxygen removal for the domestic MDG process was evaluated and compared with that of external films. Methods : 3M (Liqui-celTM) and domestic membrane degassing process were evaluated by ultrapure membrane degassing process. First, the DO removal rate was evaluated for the evaluation of the hollow fiber membranes, but the operating conditions such as vacuum degree and nitrogen gas injection amount were changed. Secondly, the solubility of organics in the module was evaluate. And the efficiency of dissolved oxygen removal according to four operating criteria (inlet DO concentration, vacuum level, nitrogen gas volume, and supply pressure) was evaluated. Results and Discussion : First, the hollow fiber membrane of 3M (Liqui-celTM) is DO 3.8 ~ 4.9 mg/L and the domestic hollow fiber membrane is 3.4 ~ 4.8 mg/L depending on the operating conditions. As a result of evaluation of the hollow fiber membrane, the removal efficiency of the domestic hollow fiber membrane was better. Secondly, As a result of the application of domestic MDG, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the product is 0 μg/L when the incoming DO concentration is 10 μg/L or less. There was no difference compared to 3M. When the operating conditions such as incoming DO concentration, vacuum level, nitrogen gas and supply pressure were changed, the DO removal rate was lowered to 61 ~ 65%. Conclusions : In the evaluation of the MDG hollow fiber membrane, the removal efficiency of the domestic membrane was better. However, evaluating the module lowers the efficiency. The packing efficiency of the module is low and the resistance of the membrane is increased, resulting in low removal efficiency. Improvement of domestic MDG membrane should reduce the pore size of membrane and reduce the thickness of membrane. As a result, the dissolved oxygen removal efficiency of domestic MDG membrane can be improved. 목적 : 본 연구에서는 외산탈기막이 독점적으로 사용되는 초순수 공정에서 국산 Membrane degassing (MDG)공정을 개발하여 평가하였다. 초순수용 MDG 공정에 주로 사용되는 제품은 3M의 Liqui-celTM 제품이며, 국산MDG막은 화학공정 중 CO2 가스 공정에 사용되는 중공사막을 개선하여 모듈을 개발하였다. 초순수 공정의 최종 용존산소 관리 수준은 1 μg/L 이하이며, 국산막에 대한 용존산소 제거효율을 평가하여 외산막과 성능을 비교평가하였다. 방법 : 국산 MDG공정 개발에 대한 평가 방법으로 중공사막과 모듈에 대한 평가를 나누어 실시하였다. 우선, 중공사막의 평가를 위해 진공도, 질소가스 주입량 등의 운전조건을 변경하여 DO 제거율을 평가하였다. 외산 및 국산MDG막을 이용하여 질소농도와 진공도를 각각 2.5 ~ 5 L/min 및 30 ~ 150 mmHg로 변화시키며 평가하였다. 두 번째로 모듈에 대한 평가는 유기물 용출도를 평가하였으며, 또한 인입농도, 진공도, 질소가스량, 공급압력 등 4가지운전인자에 따른 용존산소 제거효율에 대해 평가하였다. 결과 및 토의 : 첫 번째로 국내 MDG 중공사막의 평가결과 진공도와 질소가스량의 조건에 따라 Liqui-celTM 막의경우 용존산소가 3.8 ~ 4.9 mg/L이며, 국내 중공사막의 경우 3.4 ~ 4.8 mg/L이다. 중공사막의 평가결과 국내 중공사막의 제거효율이 더 좋았다. 이는 막의 기공과 균일도에 의해 효율차이가 발생한 것이다. 두 번째로 국산 MDG 모듈 적용 결과 인입 DO 농도가 10 μg/L 이하일 경우 생산수 DO가 0 μg/L 수준으로 3M막과 비교하여 차이가없었으나, 인입 DO 농도, 진공도, 질소가스, 공급압력을 변경한 결과 DO제거율이 61 ~ 65% 수준으로 낮아졌다. 막의 패킹효율, 막의 두께, 기공의 사이즈에 의해 효율차이가 발생한 것이다. 결론 : MDG 중공사막에 대한 평가에서는 국산막의 제거효율이 더 좋았으며, 모듈을 구성하여 평가하면 효율이 낮아짐을 알 수 있었으며, 이는 모듈 구성이 집약도와 막의 저항이 증가함으로 제거효율이 낮아진다. 이를 극복하기위해서는 막의 기공 크기를 감소시키고, 막의 두께를 감소시켜 용존산소 제거효율을 높여야 한다.
Objectives:This study aims to summarize the market status, patent applications, and technology trends for the production of ultrapure water in semiconductor industries. In addition, the potential of technological localization of ultrapure water production facility is reviewed in order to incubate domestic core technologies as well as to reduce the technical dependence to the market stake holders. Methods:Through the collection and summary of information from global water institute (GWI), market analyst firms in ultrapure water fields, and the patent analysis for the past 10 years, the technological gap between domestic and market leading in Japan, the United States, and Europe were analyzed. In addition, the research trend related to the core removal processes for the production of ultrapure water was also analyzed. Results and Discussion:As a result of market analysis in the industrial water sector, the capital investment is expected to reach USD 39.9 billion by 2024, with a steady growth of 4.1% per year. The unit processes required for the production of ultrapure water becomes more complex and diversified, and the recent technological advancement has been mainly put on the development of eco-friendly water treatment processes such as electrodeionization (EDI) in order to reduce the chemical usage. In addition, research on the development of new processes for the treatment of hardly degradable trace substances (i.e. urea, THM, IPA, etc.) is actively under investigation. However, the patent analysis revealed that the three Japanese companies occupied 71% of the world’s patents on the ultrapure water production. Conclusions:In ultrapure water production technology, the design of unit processes is important, and the design of a system that combines and arranges unit processes is the core technology. Thus, the incubation of domestic companies that have ability to design the array of unit processes for ultrapure water production is necessary for the localization of ultrapure water technology. However, although a few companies have completed the commercialization of core technologies, there is lack of the test field to evaluate the long-term performance of products. Therefore, for the development of domestic technologies in the ultrapure water production, it is necessary to construct a test-bed capable of evaluating the performance of domestic products. In addition, it is expected that localization of ultrapure water production technology will be facilitated with the participation of consumers. 목적:본 연구에서는 대외 의존성이 높은 초순수 분야에 대한 시장현황, 특허출원 및 기술 동향을 분석하여 기술의존성 탈피를 위한 초순수 생산기술 국산화 기술개발의 방향성을 검토하고자 한다. 방법:초순수 분야의 시장 및 특허분석, 특히, 기술을 선점하고 있는 일본 및 미국, 유럽의 공정기술을 보유한 기업들을 분석하였다. 또한, 제거대상 물질별 공정기술, 핵심소재의 연구동향, 특허 출원동향 등을 세밀히 분석하였다. 결과 및 토의:고순도 공업용수 분야의 시장분석 결과 ’24년까지 자본투자는 399억달러로 연평균 4.1%의 꾸준한 성장세가 예상된다. 초순수 생산을 위해 요구되는 수처리 단위공정은 점점 더 복잡하고 다양해지고 있으며 최근 단위 공정의 기술 발전은 수처리를 위한 약품을 절감하기 위해 전기탈이온(EDI)과 같은 친환경 수처리공정을 개발하는 추세이다. 또한, 난분해성 미량 물질(i.e. Urea, THM, IPA 등)의 처리를 위한 신공정 개발에 관한 연구를 진행 중이다. 초순수 관련 특허 동향 분석 결과 일본의 소수 기업에서 전세계 특허의 71%를 점유하고 있다. 결론:초순수 생산기술에서는 공정의 설계가 중요하며 단위 공정의 설계뿐만 아니라 단위 공정을 조합하여 배치하는 시스템의 설계가 초순수 기술의 핵심이다. 초순수 생산을 위한 단위 공정에 대한 기술을 보유한 국내 기업들은 다양하게 있으나, 현장 적용이 가능한 상용화 기술 및 운영을 통한 성능 보장 능력이 부족한 실정이다. 따라서 초순수 분야의 국산화 기술 개발은 단위 공정의 경우 현장 적용을 위한 테스트베드의 구축이 필요하며 수요처가 함께 기술 개발에 참여한다면 특정 국가의 소수만이 보유하고 있는 초순수 생산기술의 국산화 개발이 앞당겨질 것으로 예상된다.
권병수,이혜은,장정윤,이상길,정인재,조영상,박태진,최광진,Kwon, Byung-Soo,Lee, Hye-Un,Jang, Jung-Yoon,Lee, Sang-Kil,Chung, In Jae,Cho, Young-Sang,Park, Tae-Jin,Choi, Guang-Jin 한국화학공학회 2008 Korean Chemical Engineering Research(HWAHAK KONGHA Vol.46 No.1
Core-shell structured $BaTiO_3$ powders were produced via nano-coating of $Cr_2O_3$ and $Mn_2O_3$ to barium titanate powder system for MLCCs. From preliminary experiments, the optimal solution reaction condition employing using $KMnO_4$, $K_2Cr_2O_4$ and sulfur was established. Not only powders of $Cr_2O_3$ and $Mn_2O_3$ were synthesized but also their coating on $BaTiO_3$ powders were peformed under the same reaction condition. The coating was carried out in two ways, one-step and two-step, and its results were characterized for comparison. Conclusively speaking, two oxide additives were coated onto the $BaTiO_3$ powder surface with high quality and excellent reaction yield even under mild condition, which indicates that the contents as well as the properties of additive shell layer can be precisely controlled with rather ease. 본 연구에서는 MLCC용 $BaTiO_3$에 첨가되는 $Cr_2O_3$와 $Mn_2O_3$의 나노코팅에 의한 core-shell 구조의 $BaTiO_3$ 분말을 제조하였다. 예비실험을 통해서 $KMnO_4$ 및 $K_2Cr_2O_4$ 그리고 sulfur를 사용하는 최적의 액상반응조건이 확립되었다. 본 연구에서는 두 첨가제 분말을 합성하였고 동일한 반응조건으로 두 첨가제를 $BaTiO_3$ 분말표면에 코팅하였다. 코팅은 one-step과 two-step의 두 방법으로 구분하여 시행하였고 그 결과를 분석 비교하였다. 결론적으로 말해서, $Cr_2O_3$와 $Mn_2O_3$의 두 첨가제는 용이한 반응조건에서 높은 수율로 우수한 품질의 코팅막을 형성하므로써, 첨가제 함량과 코팅막 특성의 정밀한 조절이 용이함을 보여주었다.
Purpose We investigated the clinical relevance and spectrum of BRCA1/2mutations in Korean ovarian cancer (KoOC) patients. Materials and Methods Two hundred seventy-nine KoOC patients were enrolled from three university hospitals between 2012 and 2017. Their peripheral blood samples were obtained for BRCA1/2 mutation analysis by direct sequencing. Clinicopathological characteristics were retrospectively reviewed, and spectrum analyses of BRCA1/2mutation were assessed by systematic literature review. Results Frequency of BRCA1/2mutations was 16.5% in KoOC patients. BRCA1/2mutations were significantly associated with family history of breast/ovarian cancer (p < 0.001), serous histology (p=0.044), and advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (III/IV, p=0.018) but not with early age-of-onset (age < 50, p=0.729). Literature review of BRCA1/2mutations in KoOC patients found 111 (55 distinct) mutations with high proportion of Korean-specific mutations (24/55, 43.6%). Comparing the spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutation between KoOC and Korean breast cancer (KoBC) patients, the ratio of BRCA1-to-BRCA2mutations was different, with BRCA1 (78.4%) being predominant in KoOC and BRCA2 in KoBC (59.2%). The most common mutation also differed between the two (c.3627insA of BRCA1 in KoOC and c.7480C>T of BRCA2 in KoBC). Conclusion The clinical relevance of BRCA1/2 mutations in KoOC patients was confirmed but that of early age-of-onset was not. Possible inconsistency in the ratio of BRCA1-to-BRCA2mutations and the most common mutation between KoOC and KoBC may probably suggest presence of mutation sequence-associated penetrance tendency in hereditary Korean breast and ovarian cancer. These data may provide insights for optimal genetic counseling and prophylactic treatment for at-risk relatives of KoOC patients.
Purpose: This study investigated the natural history of non-cavitary nodular bronchiectatic (NC-NB) Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease (LD). Methods: Among patients diagnosed with NC-NB MAC-LD between March 2000 and December 2013, 551 patients who were followed until December 2017 were enrolled at a tertiary referral center in South Korea. Patients were subdivided into the progressive and stationary group according to whether treatment was started within 3 years from the time of diagnosis. We also investigated the rate of spontaneous sputum conversion in untreated group. Results: The mean age of 551 patients was 61.1 years. During the median 5.8 years of follow-up, 323 (58.6%) of the patients received treatment within 3 years (progressive group), whereas remaining 228 (41.4%) patients did not (stationary group). Multivariate analysis revealed that age ≤60 years, a positive sputum smear, the presence of any systemic symptoms and Mycobacterium intracellulare isolates were predictors of receiving treatment. Moreover, during the median of 5.0 years follow- up, spontaneous sputum conversion occurred in 52.2% patients among those who did not receive treatment. Conclusions: Among patients with NC-NB MAC-LD, approximately 60% of patients received treatment within 3 years of diagnosis. And about 50% of untreated patients experienced spontaneous sputum conversion.