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      • KCI등재

        Rayleigh's Public Lectures with Acoustical Experiments

        구자현,Ku, Ja-Hyon The Acoustical Society of Korea 2011 韓國音響學會誌 Vol.30 No.7

        From 1860s to 1910s, Rayleigh's efforts to reveal the nature and various features of sound continued to achieve good success in theory and experiment. Although his concern with acoustics primarily originated from intellectual curiosity, he did not ignore its practicality. His efforts were made to develop public lectures with demonstration experiments during his professorship at the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Acoustics covered the second-most frequent subject in his public lectures and his acoustical experiments were designed for satisfying the needs of the audience by employing ingenious strategies.

      • KCI등재

        미국 음향학자 앨프레드 메이어의 음향학 연구

        구자현,Ku, Ja-Hyon 한국음향학회 2009 韓國音響學會誌 Vol.28 No.1

        19세기 내내 미국 음향학이 유럽에 뒤쳐져 있었을 때, 미국의 음향학자인 앨프레드 메이어는 미국의 실험 음향학을 유럽의 수준으로 끌어올리는 데 크게 기여했다. 그는 파리에 머물면서 악기 제작자인 쾨니히와의 협동 연구를 통해 실험 기술을 전수 받았고 영국을 방문하여 레일리를 비롯한 앞선 연구자들의 연구 능력을 배우는 기회를 갖기도 했다. 이러한 노력의 결과로 메이어는 온도에 따른 음속 변화를 이용한 음향 고온계의 개발, 선택적 공명에 의한 모기 청각의 발견, 소리의 잔류 감각 지속의 공식화, 소리의 방향을 찾아내는 토포폰의 개발, 음의 진동수를 가시화 하는 장치 등 독창적인 성과를 통해 유럽에서 명성을 얻었다. 그는 유럽의 음향학에 독창적인 연구 성과를 더했을 뿐 아니라 음향학을 물리 교육에도 활용함으로써 차세대 미국 음향학자들의 배출에 기여했다. While American acoustics had been lagged behind European one in the nineteenth century, Alfred Mayer greatly contributed to enhance American experimental acoustics. He inherited experimental skills in collaboration with Koenig in Paris, and got chances to obtain research ability from leading researchers such as Rayleigh during his visit to England. His accomplishments, which brought him fame in Europe, included the creation of the acoustic pyrometer which measured the high temperature by means of the thermal change of the sound velocity, the discovery of mosquito's hearing by selective resonance, the formalization of the duration of the residual sensation of sound, the invention of the topophone which searched for the direction of the sound source, the construction of the apparatus for visualizing the frequency of sound and so on. He not only added new research results to Europe's acoustics but applied acoustics to physical education to help produce the next generation of American acousticians.

      • KCI등재

        19세기 영국 음향학의 특성 탐구: 음악과의 상호작용을 중심으로

        구자현,Ku, Ja-Hyon 한국음향학회 2006 韓國音響學會誌 Vol.25 No.2

        19세기 영국 음향학은 현대 음향학의 기초로서 음향학사에서 중요한 위치를 점한다. 당시의 음향학이 추구된 목적과 의도는 현대와는 매우 달랐으며, 그 중에서도 음악적 동기가 매우 두드러졌다. 이 연구는 관련된 출판 및 미출판 사료들을 검토함으로써 19세기 영국에서 음악과 음향학의 상호작용을 다양한 측면에서 밝히고자 하였다. 당시 음악은 음향학에 도구, 주제, 인력을 제공했고, 음향학은 음계를 개선하고 개발하며 절대 피치의 측정의 정밀성을 향상시키는 데 음악 과학으로서 기여하였다. 음악은 19세기 내내 유럽, 특히 영국의 음향학이 현대적인 과학 전문 분야로 발전하는 데 핵심적 역할을 했다. British acoustics in the nineteenth century is important as a foundation for modern acoustics in the history of acoustics. The Purpose and objective of acoustics was different from those in modern age. and musical motivation was distinguished among them. This study intends to clarify various aspects of interaction between music and acoustics in nineteenth-century Britain by examining related materials in both published and unpublished forms. Then music Provided acoustics with instruments, subjects, and personnel, and acoustics did much as musical science in helping to improve and develop musical scales and enhancing the exactness of measurement of absolute pitches. Music played an essential role in developing acoustics to a modern discipline in Europe, especially in Britain. all through the nineteenth century.

      • KCI등재

        라이스의 전화기 발명과 통화 음질의 문제

        구자현,Ku, Ja-Hyon 한국음향학회 2010 韓國音響學會誌 Vol.29 No.6

        리어스는 그레이나 벨 등보다 훨씬 앞서서 도선을 통해 목소리를 전달하는 데 성공했기 때문에 전화기의 발명자라고 불리는 것이 마땅하지만 살아 있는 동안 그의 위대한 발명품으로 영예를 누리지 못했다. 그는 과학자 집단에 속해 있었으므로 그의 연구를 특허를 낼 수 있는 발명품이 아니라 과학적 발견으로 제시하였다. 또한 그는 유럽 음향학의 실험 전통에 따라 단속적 전기를 사용하였기에 그의 전화기는 통화음질에 치명적 결점을 갖게 되었다. 반면에 전기와 음향학에 초보자였던 벨은 소리 신호를 전송하기 위해 가변 전류를 사용하였고 그것은 라이스의 전화기보다 더 나은 통화 음질을 보장하였다. Since Philipp Reis succeeded in sending human voices through electric wires well ahead of Elisha Gray and A. G. Bell etc., he deserves to be acknowledged as the inventor of the telephone. Nevertheless, he did not enjoy any honor for his great invention while he was alive. Since he was working in a scientific community, his work was presented not as a patentable invention but as a scientific discovery. In addition, he used the intermittent electricity in accordance with the experimental tradition in European acoustics, occasioning the speech quality of his telephone to have a fatal shortcoming. On the contrary, Bell, who was a novice in electricity and acoustics, employed variable currents to transmit the sound signals, which guaranteed better speech qualities than Reis's.

      • KCI등재

        소리의 그늘, 반사, 간섭, 회절의 검출을 위한 레일리의 선구적 실험에 대한 연구

        구자현,Ku, Ja-Hyon 한국음향학회 2007 韓國音響學會誌 Vol.26 No.2

        그늘, 반사, 간섭, 회절은 파동의 일종인 소리가 나타내는 고유한 현상이다. 19세기 말 경에 유사한 광학적 현상들은 이미 검출되어 있었으나 소리에 관련된 이러한 현상들은 제대로 검출되지 못했다. 독창적인 실험 기구와 명민한 실험 설계로 이러한 현상들을 이견을 제시할 여지 없이 검출하는 데 성공한 인물은 레일리였다. 그는 건물의 모퉁이를 사용하여 소리 그늘을 검출할 수 있었고 반사판을 이용하여 그늘이 사라지는 것을 보일 수 있었다. 또한 그는 광학에서 유명한 영의 간섭 실험 장치와 유사한 장치를 만들어서 소리의 간섭을 검출했다. 더 나아가 그는 널리 알려진 광학적 현상이었던 '푸아송의 디스크'를 음향학적으로 재현하는 데 최초로 성공했고 구형 장애물에 의한 소리의 회절 효과를 조사하여 그것이 자신의 이론과 일치하는 것을 확인했다. The shadow, reflection, interference, and diffraction are proper phenomena concerning sound that is a kind of wave. By the late nineteenth century, similar optical phenomena had been detected already but these phenomena concerning sound had not been convincingly detected. It was Rayleigh who succeeded in detecting those phenomena without any reasonable doubt by the virtue of his original instruments and smart experimental settings. Rayleigh could detect the sound shadow by using the corner of a building and erase the shadow by some reflectors. And he constructed some apparatus similar to Young's interference apparatus famous in optics to detect the sonic interference. Furthermore, he first succeeded in illustrating the acoustical effectiveness of Poisson's disk by which optical diffraction had already been well known, and tested the effect of diffraction by spherical obstacles to ascertain that the result coincided with his theory.

      • KCI등재

        Between Invention and Discovery: A. G. Bell's Photophone and Photoacoustic Research

        구자현,Ku, Ja-Hyon The Acoustical Society of Korea 2012 韓國音響學會誌 Vol.31 No.2

        The photophone, Alexander Graham Bell's device for transmitting sound through light was patented in 1880. It included the transmitter modulating and reflecting strong light like sunlight to a distant receiver which produced sound. In this working of the photophone, the discovery of the sound-emitting effect under illumination was very essential. Longing for being famous in the scientific community, Bell focused on presenting various methods for producing sounds and for maximizing the loudness by performing intensive research on the photoacoustic effect. Bell's scientific research on photoacoustics was successful in establishing himself as a scientist and laid a foundation of photoacoustic analysis. And his invention became a basis for other researchers' subsequent technologies like fiber-optic communication.

      • KCI등재

        과학 교재의 은유 분석

        구자현(Ku, Ja Hyon) 한국수사학회 2017 수사학 Vol.0 No.28

        The expressive values of metaphors for rhetorical purposes which have been esteemed for ages in rhetoric and literature have been rejected as inappropriate in science in that metaphors cause ambiguity. The cognitive theory of metaphor, which suggests that metaphors dominate the human life of language by forming conceptual systems on the empirical foundation, directs us to the fact that metaphors play essential roles in science, requesting to rethink the process and intellectual status of science. In science, the conceptual metaphor which involves common experience of nature plays sort of unrecognized premises that implies perspectives widely accepted in specific hours and places but is not mentioned explicitly. Analyzing Jeans’s Science and Music, a textbook of musical acoustics reveals many of roles of metaphors. A metaphor determines the book"s main characteristics, directions of discourse, and even the tone of writing. And metaphors easily introduce basic terms, concepts as well as scientific principles for helping teach science. Thus, major achievements in acoustics which are involved in the textbook show that metaphors are a major tool for productive scientific teaching and research.

      • KCI등재

        과학 교재의 수사학

        구자현(Ku, Ja Hyon) 한국수사학회 2018 수사학 Vol.0 No.32

        Analyzing the rhetoric of a scientific text is based on the recognition that science communicates by employing the language. The paper intends to show that the narrative analysis which has been tried in analyzing general texts in rhetoric are appropriate and beneficial in analyzing scientific textbooks, too. Sedley Taylor’s Sound and Music which was widely used as textbook for teaching music students in the late nineteenth century is an object suitable for rhetorically analyzing how the effort to teach nonexperts the basis of science was made. The range of analyzing scientific educational texts has been extended by extensively recognizing the narrative as activities including human life and thinking process. According to the criteria of Water Fisher"s narrative rationality, the textbook satisfies the structural and material coherence through selecting and arranging appropriate contents as well as the characteristic coherence through providing contents while considering the features of readers who are to work for music but lacking in scientific knowledge. It mobilizes the narrative reliability by relying on reasoning and experiment as well as the authority of Helmholtz, a superb expert of acoustics at that time. However, it exposes the lack of narrative truthfulness by the misunderstanding of Helmholtz"s theory of consonance and dissonance.

      • KCI등재

        잠(John A. Zahm)의 『소리와 음악』(Sound and Music)에서 시범 실험의 교육적 기능들

        구자현 ( Ja Hyon Ku ) 경남대학교 인문과학연구소 2016 人文論叢 Vol.40 No.-

        노터데임 대학의 물리학 교수인 잠이 1892년에 출판한 『소리와 음악』은 대중과 음악 전공 학생들에게 음향학을 가르치는 교재이다. 그의 강의에서 가장 두드러진 특색은 광범위하고 적극적으로 시범 실험을 활용한 것이다. 이 논문은 버크의 5항목 방법을 사용함으로써 잠이 음악 음향학 강의에서 다양한 시범 실험을 채택한 주된 동기가 과학과 음악의 융합 교육을 추구하는 것임을 드러낸다. 이 논문은 잠의 시범 실험이 융합 교육에서 어떤 수사학적 기능을 담당하는지 예증한다. 과학교육 측면에서 시범 실험은 개념적 용어의 제시, 과학적 명제의 교습과 증명, 실험기술의 전수, 유비에 의한 가설의 지지, 정량적 법칙의 증명 등을 목적으로 제시된다. 시범 실험은 동시에 음악 교육 측면에서 음의 식별을 위한 실천적 지식과 더불어 음악적 원리 및 악기의 작동 원리에 대한 이론적 지식을 제공한다. 그러므로 이 책은 과학과 음악의 융합교육의 전범을 제공하여 오늘날 STEAM 융합 교육에서 활용될 요긴한 자료이다. A professor of physics at Notre Dame University, John A. Zahm’s Sound and Music, which was published in 1892, is a textbook aimed at teaching musical acoustics to the public and the future musicians. The most prominent feature of the lecture course is the frequent and earnest utilization of demonstrative experiments. By employing Kenneth Burke``s pentadic method, this paper reveals that the main motive of the adoption of a variety of demonstrative experiments in Zahm’s lecture course of musical acoustics is to pursue the fusional pedagogy of science and music. The paper illustrates what pedagogic functions his presentation of demonstrative experiments serves in the fusional pedagogy: On the scientific side, experiments provide the audience with the teaching of conceptual terms, the teaching and proof of scientific statements, the falsification of theories, the delivery of experimenting skills, the confirmation of hypotheses by analogy, and the approximate proof of quantitative laws And on the musical side, they simultaneously provide the audience with the practical knowledge for discriminating musical sounds as well as the theoretical knowledge of musical principles and the working principles of musical instruments. Therefore the textbook, which provides a exemplar for the fusional pedagogy of science and music, is a useful material for STEAM education.

      • KCI등재

        양자역학 교재의 은유 분석

        구자현(Ku, Ja Hyon) 한국수사학회 2017 수사학 Vol.0 No.29

        Metaphors, which were utilized for expressional effects from antiquity, have been regarded as obstacles to smooth communication in the areas such as science which require exact thinking since the modern times. However, the cognitive metaphor theory shows that metaphors play the essential role in shaping concepts in the human thinking process. And the mental space theory details the formative process of metaphors by creating the blending space through the mapping between the input spaces. Therefore, it is suggestible that in science, which actively adopts new concepts, conceptual metaphors are widely employed. The paper analyzes Griffiths’ Introduction to Quantum Mechanics in order to find the roles of metaphors in the textbooks of science. In the textbook for college students, the author frequently employs the expressional metaphors for adopting new concepts as well as for clearly communicating his intention. The expressional metaphors have merits in having novel concepts understandable, but are in danger of creating misconceptions. As for the conceptual metaphors, the physicist creates a blending space of quantum mechanics through the mapping from an input space of linear algebra to another input space of the subatomic world. The novelty of some concepts in quantum mechanics is reduced to comprehensibility by the blending by means of the projection from mathematics.

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