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The paper is aiming at a critical review of some important aspects of library cooperation in cataloging. It examines the developments of cooperation in cataloging in brief, attempts a detailed account of centralized and cooperative cataloging by bringing out the strengths and weaknesses of each, and reviews important cooperative projects in cataloging as they have been carried out on regional, national and international levels. Examination is made of such cooperative ventures as technical service centers, a variety of Library of Congress programs designed to ease the burden of cataloging for libraries, and the shared cataloging part of the National Program for Acquisition and Cataloging.
The paper is aimed as 'food for thought' concerning the infortance and training of the subject specialist librarians(=SSL) in Korea. Definetions and qualifications as well as the responsibilities and activities of SSL were examined. Opportunities and means for the training of SSL were sought within the framework of the present curriculum of the library science departments and the present system of higher education in korea, and through the efforts of continuing education.
This paper is intended as a basic study in which the purpose is to provide understanding of the workings of man in relation to his information resources. Such understanding would prove of value in formulating the policies of an inoformation center serving the fields of science and technology. The information problem of the scientific community was assessed in the lights of the characteristics of the information (cumulativeness, currency versus obsolescence, volume versus redundancy, interrelationships, and foreign literature)and the flow of information and communication patterns covering the use of the variety of media and the information gathering habits of scientists. What can be done to ease the problem was sought in the improvements and innovations which call the attentions of the scientists and the technologists as producers and users of the information, of the professional organizations of various disciplines and of government.
The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was developed to extend EPIC's capabilities of simulating land management impacts for small-medium watershed and heterogeneous farms. APEX is a flexible and dynamic tool that is capable of simulating a wide array of management practices, cropping systems, and other land uses across a broad range of agricultural landscapes. APEX have its own agricultural environmental database including operation schedule, soil property, and weather data etc., by crops. However, agriculture environmental informations the APEX model has is all based on U.S. As this can cause malfunction or improper simulation while simulating highland field. In this study, database for APEX model to be utilized for South Korea established with 44,814 agriculture fields in Pyeongchang-gun, Korea from 2007 to 2016. And assessed domestic applicability by comparing T-P unit load criteria presented by National Institution of Environmental Research and result of APEX model. As a result of APEX model simulation, average T-P value for decade was 6.18. Average T-P of every year except 2011 was in range of 5.37~10.43 and this is being involved into criteria presented by National Institution of Environmental Research. It is analyzed that adjusting slope factor can make the model applicable for domestic agricultural environment.
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) have been used to represent the effects of topography on soil erosion. A DEM of 30 m resolution is frequently used in hydrology and soil erosion studies because the National Water Management Information System (WAMIS) provides a 30 m resolution DEM at national scale on its web site. However, the Ministry of Environment recommends the use of a DEM with 10 m resolution for evaluation of soil erosion due to the fact that soil erosion estimation is to some degree affected by the spatial resolution of DEM. In this regard, a DEM with 5 m resolution was resampled for 10 × 10 m, 20 × 20 m, 30 × 30 m, 50 × 50 m, 70 × 70 m, and 100 × 100 m resolutions, respectively. USLE LS factors and soil erosion values were evaluated using these datasets. Use of a DEM with at least 30 m resolution provided reasonable LS factors and soil erosion values at a watershed.
Universal Soil Loss Equation(USLE)을 이용하여 토양침식을 산정할 때 LS 인자는 Digital Elevation Model(DEM)을 이용하여 분석한다. DEM 해상도는 LS 인자를 산정함에 있어 사용하는 DEM의 해상도에 따라 LS 인자값이 다르게 산정되게 하는 민감한 요소이다. 그러나 국내 여러 가지 연구 및 논문들을 보게 되면 10m×10m의 DEM을 사용하기도 하며, 30m×30m의 DEM을 사용하기도 하는 등 LS 인자값을 산정함에 있어 불확실성이 발생하고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 보다 정확한 토양유실량 산정을 위해 5m×5m 해상도 DEM 자료를 기준으로 LS 인자 값을 산정하여 10m×10m, 20m×20m, 30m×30m, 50m×50m, 70m×70m, 100m×100m 해상도에 따른 LS 인자와 토양침식 값을 산정하였다. 산정된 값을 전국단위로 비교 및 분석한 결과 USLE를 이용하여 토양침식 및 LS 인자를 산정함에 있어 필요한 최소한의 DEM 해상도는 30m×30m으로 분석되었다.
Symmetry is everywhere in the world around us from galaxy to microbes. From ancient times symmetry is considered to be a reflection of the harmony of universe. Symmetry is not only a significant clue for human cognitive process, but also useful information for computer vision such as image understanding system. Application areas include face detection and recognition, indexing of image database, image segmentation and detection, analysis of medical images, and so on. The technique used in this paper extracts edges, and the perpendicular bisector of any two edge points is considered to be a candidate axis of symmetry. The coefficients of candidate axis are accumulated in the coefficient space. Then the axis of symmetry is determined to be the line for which the coefficient histogram has maximum value. In this paper, an improved method is proposed that utilizes the directional information of edges, which is a byproduct of the edge detection process. Experiment on 20 test images shows that the proposed method performs 22.7 times faster than the original method. In another test on 5 images with 4% salt-and-pepper noise, the proposed method detects the symmetry successfully, while the original method fails. This result reveals that the proposed method enhances the speed and accuracy of detection process at the same time.
The purpose of this study is to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of NRM granules which were newly developed as a combination product containing antacids, digestive enzymes and herb drugs for the treatmet of various symptoms of upper gastrointestinal disorders taking SGN granules of similiar but different composition as a control. One hundred and twenty one patients were randomly allocated to receive one pack of either NRM granule(80 cases) or SGN granules(41 cases) three times a day after meal and undergone symptomatic, endoscopic and clinical laboratory assessment before and after two weeks of treatment. The results were as follows; 1. All symptoms except anorexia showed improvements in more than 90% of total cases with each symptom in the NRM group. 2. The general improvement rate was 97.5% in NRM group, and was superior to the(92.5%) of SGN group. 3. Two cases of NRM group and one case of SGN group developed mild nausea, and onecase of SGN group developed mild epigastric soreness. No cases of the two groups developed laboratory(blood, biochemical, urine) abnormalities. 4. The overall clinical efficacy rate was 95.0% in NRM group, 87.8% in SGN group. According to the result of this trial, it was concluded that NRM granule was an effective and safe drug and(but not statistically significant) was slightly more efficient than SGN for treatment of various symptoms in upper gastrointestinal disorders.
N/A The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility that measurement of gastric carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) might be a better diagnostic aid, in the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma, than serum CEA. We measured simultaneously serum and gastric juice CEA in 115 patients (38 chronic gastritis, 12 benign gastric ulcer, and 65 gastric carcinoma) who were confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. Gastric juice CEA was more sensitive in the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma than serum CEA (65% vs. 17% positive). Gastric juice CEA was elevated in 32% of benign gastric diseases, 50% of early gastric carcinoma, and in 17% of advanced gastric carcinomas. No significant correlation was found between age, sex, location or grosstype of tumor and gastric juice CEA levels. We conclude that measurement of gastric juice CEA may be more sensitive, in the diagnosis of gastic carcinoma, than serum CEA. However, gastric juice CEA seems to be not helpful for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions, and thus this subject should be studied further for screening high risk patients, for identifying and following patients with premalignant conditions, and for following cancer patients before and after treatment.