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Initial treatment of schizophrenia may not be successful due to the side effects of antipsychotic drugs and absence of insight in the patients. Schizophrenic patients go into the chronic and devastating process due to the characteristics of disease itself and making it necessary to predict therapeutic response in the initial stages of treatment. The changes of plasma metabolites, an objective method which measures therapeutic responses, is sensitive to many factors like age, disease duration, drug exposure period, and schizophrenia is made of not just one symptoms, but several symptoms. To control these confounding factors, it is necessary to study with first-episode drug-naive patients. The purposes of this study were to examine the changes of plasma homovanillic acid(HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid(5-HIAA), and HVA/HIAA ratio during an 6-week risperidone trial and to investigate the relationship between the plasma monoamine metabolites and treatment responses. Seventeen first-episode drug naive schizophrenic patients were treated for 6 weeks with risperidone. The psychopathology was assessed at baseline just before SDA trial and then at 2 week and 6 week after SDA treatment. At the same time plasma HVA and 5-HIAA were evaluated by HPLC(high performance liquid chromatography). The results were as follows: 1.Plasma HVA and 5-HIAA levels were significantly decreased during an 6-week risperidone treatment, although plasma HVA/5-HIAA ratio showed no significant change. 2.The changes of plasma HVA levels were in significant correlations with the changes of PANSS positive scores, and the changes of plasma 5-HIAA levels were in significant correlations with the changes of PANSS negaive scores. These results suggest that the antipsychotic effect of risperidone on positive symptoms may be associated with dopaminergic blocking activity, and on negative symptoms may be associated with serotonergic blocking activity. The changes of plasma HVA and 5-HIAA levels may be useful therapeutic predictors in the treatment of risperidone. Key Words : first-episode schizophrenia, changes of psychopathology, plasma HVA, 5-HIAA, serotonin dopamine antagonist
The problem of global regulation is investigated for a class of nonlinear systems which contain some high-order terms. We propose a high-order scaling state-feedback controller with appropriate dynamic gains. Compared to existing results, the condition on the nonlinearity is flexible due to the freedom of choosing the bounding positive function of the nonlinearity. Thus, the nonlinear systems with some high-order nonlinearities which do not belong to existing conditions can be globally regulated.
In this paper, the problem of regulating a chain of integrators under input delay and measurement sensitivity is investigated. The input delay is not only unknown but also time varying, while the measurement sensitivity in the feedback channel is arbitrarily varying. The delay and measurement sensitivity render stability analysis more difficult. To overcome the difficulties, we provide a non-predictor controller to deal with the unknown input delay and a process of selecting controller parameters such that the measurement sensitivity is permissible.
We propose an output feedback controller for lower triangular nonlinear systems which have the measurement sensitivity in the output function and the unbounded growth rate in the nonlinearities. To solve the regulation problem of the considered systems, the controller with a dynamic gain is newly designed by utilizing the range of the measurement sensitivity and the growth rate of the unbounded function. As a result, more generalized lower triangular nonlinear systems can be regulated by output feedback under the measurement sensitivity. .
In this paper, a regulation problem for a class of lower triangular nonlinear systems under unknown measurement sensitivity by output feedback is considered. The distinguished feature is that the unknown measurement sensitivity is only required to be positive and bounded. The analysis is carried out to show the relation between the gain selection of an output feedback controller and the bound of the measurement sensitivity. Then, the adaptive gain-scalings of the controller are utilized to dominate the unknown growth rate of the nonlinearity.
We present an output feedback controller for a class of nonlinear systems with uncertain nonlinearity and sensor noise. The sensor noise has both a finite constant component and a time-varying component such that its integral function is finite. The new design and analysis method is based on the matrix inequality approach. With our proposed controller, the states and output can be ultimately bounded even though the structure of nonlinearity is more general than that in the existing results.
In this paper, we consider a regulation problem of nonlinear systems under two triangular conditions where there possibly exist unbounded parameters in the systems. We propose a state feedback controller with dynamic gains in order to deal with unbounded parameters based on the condition of the time-varying rate of the growing parameter. The analysis of our control scheme is carried out by Lyapunov stability method. Our control method is verified by simulation results.
A control problem of a class of input-delayed linear systems is considered in this paper. Due to the delay t in the input, any designed feedback controller can only be engaged after t≥ τ . Then, this can become the cause of slow regulation since any feedback information cannot be available during the delay. So, the initial function defined for -τ ≤ t ≤ 0 is engaged as an ‘initial non-feedback input’ for 0 ≤ t ≤ τ, which governs the system behavior during this initial time period. There have been numerous research results on the control of input-delayed linear systems by far. Yet, there have been no results on the examination and design of this initial function. Utilizing a time optimal control in the existing results, we show that if some pre-feedback as the initial function is engaged, the system response of the input-delayed linear system can be much improved, and a bang-bang input function is a good candidate as a pre-feedback which can provide better starting state values for the state feedback controller in order to perform the fast regulation. Two examples are given for the illustration of our results.