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Lignin is the second most abundant renewable biomass-derived natural resource that has been used to replace traditional petrochemical-based materials. However, fabricating the lignin component into the various forms required for practical application is still challenging. In this work, we fabricated water-resistant lignin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blend fibers by wet spinning and glutaraldehyde crosslinking methods. The effect of the lignin/PVA blend ratio and glutaraldehyde crosslinking process on the physicochemical properties of wet-spun lignin/PVA blend fibers were studied using maximum draw ratios, hydrolytic degradation profiles, and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] removal behavior of lignin/PVA blend fibers was investigated according to the effect of pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration, and contact time. The wet-spun lignin/PVA blend fiber achieved excellent water stability through glutaraldehyde crosslinking and exhibited notable Cr(VI) adsorption capacity (350.87 mg/g) and good regeneration ability. These findings demonstrate that glutaraldehyde-crosslinked lignin/PVA blend fibers could be promising adsorbents for the remediation of heavy metal species containing textile wastewater.
Silk sericin (SS) has been fabricated into beads using a 1 M LiCl/DMSO solvent and utilizedas a heavy metal adsorbent. Among the various heavy metals, we targeted Cr(VI) foradsorption using SS beads and found that its adsorption depended on the coagulant usedfor the fabrication of the SS beads. When methanol was used as a coagulant, the beads hada better adsorption capacity than when ethanol was used except at pH 1. The adsorptionbehavior of Cr(VI) on the SS beads followed the BET isotherm. The maximum adsorptioncapacity was 33.76 mg/g at pH 2. The adsorption of Cr(VI) was confirmed by FT-IR and EDSanalyses. Finally, the desorption was carried out using NaOH solution, and it was found that73.19% of the adsorbed Cr(VI) could be detached.
In this study PVA/wheat gliadin blend fiber was prepared by wet spinning using DMSO as a solvent and acetone/methanol as a coagulant. The PVA content should be greater than 40% to demonstrate successful drawing. The maximum draw ratios of the blend fiber were 6, 7.5 and 8, when the PVA content was 40, 60 and 80%, respectively. The surface of the blend fiber became rougher and macrovoids were found when the content of gliadin was increased, this was due to the skin-core effect. The ultimate stress, breaking strain and modulus of the blend fiber were increased with an increase of the PVA content. The crystallinity of the blend fiber decreased when the gliadin content increased, the secondary structure of the gliadin however did not change in the presence of PVA. In order to increase the water stability of the blend fiber, further cross-linking was performed which also improved the mechanical properties of the blend fiber.