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        • 〈李生窺墻傳〉의 寓意性 考察

          곽정식(Kwak Jung-Sik),이복자(Lee Bok-ja) 경성대학교 인문과학연구소 2003 인문학논총 Vol.8 No.-

          Isaenggyujangjeon(李生窺墻傳) is regarded as a work expressing allegorically the campaign of King Danjong(端宗)'s restoration. This is, also, a work adding two accidents centering around Honggeonjeok(紅巾賊)'s rebellion. It can be seen that this is composed of three stories, because another accident is added to this work in the form of an inserted poem(揷入詩). This paper is to examine the allegory of Isaenggyujangjeon centering around its backgrounds, characters, accidents, inserted poems, and so on. First, the backgrounds of this novel are Seonjuk-ri(善竹理), the Naktagyo(낙타교), Ulju(蔚州), and Bokju(復州). Seonjuk-ri, the Naktagyo, and Seonggyungwan(成均館) in Songdo(松島) are located in the same places as present, so it serves to raise the reality of historical accidents. Isaeng(李生)'s going down to Ulju, the family origin of Kim Siseop(金時習)'s mother Mrs. Jang(張氏) being from Ulju, and his mother's many relatives there - judging from these, Ulju is closely related to Kim Si -seop. Second, the characters of this novel are Isaeng, his parents, Choerang(崔?), and Sibit(시비). Of these Isaeng lives near the Naktagyo, and under his parents' order, he goes down to Ulju without a word to Choerang, and is also a passive and mean man who abandons his family and escapes alone in Honggeonjeok's rebellion. Kim Si-seop looks at Sayuksin(死六臣) tortured after the failure of King Danjong‘s restoration, but takes no measures to help them and wanders the country for the pain. It proves Isaeng to be Kim Si-seop. Choerang goes down to Bokju and is killed by thieves there. His parent before Honggeonjeok's rebellion is regarded as King Sejo(世祖) except whom King Danjong has no one to tum to, and his parents after the rebellion are able to be seen as faithful subjects as Sayuksin. Finally, Sibi serves as a foil to the atmosphere of the novel. Third, the happenings of the novel are Honggeonjeok's rebellion, and Choerang's and her parents' death. The former means that King Danjong is expelled from his throne and goes down to Yeongwol(寧越) owing to the failure of his restoration. The latter reveals allegorically the death of King Danjong's and his six royal subjects'(死六臣) by King Sejo's followers. And Isaeng's burying Choerang s parents at Ogwansan(五冠山) is compared with Kim Si-seop's burying five corpses at Noryangjin(鷺梁津). Fourth, inserted poems involve the fear caused by the failure of King Danjong's restoration and the advice of watching villainous subjects like a parrot. Six poems which Choerang gives to Isaeng show King Danjong's exile to Yeongwol by the failure of his restoration and their betrayal caused by the trial of his faithful subjects. They are written in "Yeongangcheopjangdo"(烟江疊壯圖) and "Yuhwanggomokdo"(幽皇古木圖). Poems compared to four seasons reveal their meanings clearly when each is connected with one another. A poem in the first picture scroll shows royal subjects arrested by King Sejo's followers owing to the failure of King Danjong's restoration, and a writer's helpless grief. A poem in the second picture scroll reveals Geumseongdaegun(錦城大君)'s plotting a rebellion, and he is symbolized as a virgin of the south. A poem in the third picture scroll presents Geumseongdaegun's death and the people's bitterness due to the exposure of his plotting a rebellion. Finally, a poem in the fourth picture scroll allegorises a story about King Danjong looking at crows in crowds in the night sky and dropping tears, foreseeing his death. Finally, weeping willow trees surrounding Choerang's house wall suggest Suyang(King Sejo)'s followers, and Choerang living there represents metaphorically King Danjong who demises his throne and is confined in Changdeokgung(昌德宮). In conclusion, Isaenggyujangjeon is able to be seen as a work expressing allegorically from the failure of King Danjong's restoration to his death.

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        • 여성영웅소설의 존재양상과 역사적 전개

          곽정식(Kwak Jung-Sik),강화수(Kang Hwa-Su) 경성대학교 인문과학연구소 2004 인문학논총 Vol.9 No.-

          The purpose of this study is to research the existential types and historical development of the novels of female hero. therefore, the result is as follow; First, the type of 'A' is the form of heroine who escapes an imminent dager. To see the most important features that the novel of Female Hero has orderly structure is as follow. Baby betrothal-Primary test(=Separation from family)-Marriage forced (=Breaking off a marriage engagement)-Trial conquest by rescuer-Receiving instruction-Applying for the state examination court appearance-Rising in the world and gaining the fame -Position disclosure-Marriage. The motif of 'Betrothal' begins and the motif of 'Marriage' ends lastly in this type. Therefore the structure of the meeting and parting of men and women appears in this type. The type of 'A' can be subdivided into the type of 'A-1', that of 'A-2' and of 'A-3' according to the degree of a heroic deed between hero and heroine in the motif of 'Going to war and paying tribut-e'. Second, the type of 'B' is the form of heroine who refuses the view of men and women in the patriarchal society of the day. The basis of this type is the structure of the opposition and reconciliation of men and women which appears after a marriage. the type of 'A' is transformed into the type of 'B-1'. The type of 'B-1' can be divided into the first haif and the second half on the basis of the motif of 'Marriage' . The structure of the meeting and parting of men and women appears in the first half of the work. The structure of the opposition and reconciliation of men and women appears in the second half of the work. Therefore the type of B-1' is endowed with all the two bases of the types of 'A' and 'B' and is considered to a form in a transition period. Third, the type of 'B-2' where the motif of 'Betrothal' disappears escapes from the structure of the meeting and parting of men and women. This type shows the structure of the opposition and reconciliation of men and women which comes out after a marriage. First of all, the basis of this type is the motif of 'Wearing men I s clothes' which is presented at first in the work. This motif means the heroine who refuses the view of men and women in the patriarchal society of the day from her child wood. Forth, the type of 'C' is the form of heroine who realizes the two sexes. The motif of 'Wearing men's clothes' is not temporary but conducting a funeral in a male attire. The Disclosing her identity just before the death is the basis of this type. Protagonists of the novel of Female Hero who lived a consistent life as a heretic of the times threw away her whole life as a comtemporary topic and presented the aim to which the patriarchal society of the day pointed. Fifth, this thesis presents 〈Syeljyejeon〉 and 〈Yewajeon〉 as a supporting evidence. 〈Syeljyejeon〉 estimates a created period in the late seventeenth century and 〈Yewajeon〉 estimates the created period in the eighteenth. From this viewpoint it can be said that the novel of Female Hero was formed and passed by a full-dress development pross through the eighteenth century. Sixth, all these types show clearly the development of the novel of Female Hero. The novel of Female Hero once reached completion with the type of 'A', then transformed into the type of 'B' and 'C'. The type of 'A' can be subdivided into the type of 'A-1', that of 'A-2' and of 'A-3'. The type of 'B' can be subdivided into the type of 'B-1' and 'B-2'. The type of 'B-2' can be transfomded into the type of 'C'. The type of 'A' is the form of the formative piriod and a typical form. The type of 'C' is the completed form.

        • 女性英雄小說 出現의 社會的 要因에 대한 管見

          곽정식(Kwak Jung-Sik) 경성대학교 인문과학연구소 2001 인문학논총 Vol.3 No.-

          The purpose of this study is to research the motive of the heroine-novel's appearance. First, Our traditional outlook on man and woman is not that of Confucianism or of Chosun dynasty period. In Korea, ever since the age of Old Chosun and the Three States, was no partiality between man and woman in a daily life until the establishment of Chosun dynasty. In the mean times, A normative outlook on man and woman which is based on rThe Book of Changes, (周易) is related with the establishment of Chosun dynasty. Chosun dynasty was established to conquest and solve the social-political contradiction and abuse of Goryeo. Because of that, Administrators controled strictly the dissolute life of the woman and established a normative outlook on man and woman. It rationalized the one-sided superintendence over woman by man on the assumption the superiority of man. Therefore, between the traditional outlook and the normative outlook on man and woman was an huge unbalance. In addition the Administrator forced the persons to go with the normative outlook on man and woman by laws and a system. In the mean times, All the men, including the Administrator revealed their inability and cowardice within the Japanese Invasion(1592-1598) and the Manchu war of 1636. In these circumstances, the woman had an up-to-date thought of life and demanded a social change. When we take above affairs into consideration it is a fairly reasonable that heroine-novel was appeared by demands and an up-to-date thought of life of the woman who was troubled with between the traditional outlook and the normative outlook on man and woman.

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          활자본 고소설 〈林巨丁傳〉의 창작 방법과 洪命憙 〈林巨正〉과의 관계

          곽정식(Kwak Jung-sik) 한국어문학회 2011 語文學 Vol.0 No.111

          The purpose of this study is to research the creative writing method of 〈Limgeujungjun〉 in classical novel with printed book and it's connection with 〈Limgeukjung〉 of Hong Myong-hee. The historical facts of Limgeujung as an existent person had been written in 『Myongjongsillok』and『Kijaejabki』ㆍ『Sunghosasul』ㆍ『youlchotongki』 etc as the unauthorized history records. In general the records of 『Myongjongsillok』play the role of the central axis in an epoch-making development of the affairs, besides the character description and the dramatic incidents mainly rely upon unofficial history in 〈Limgeujungjun〉. And on the other hand 〈Limgeujungjun〉 accepted 〈Hanssiboungnok〉 positively and consequently accepted 〈Suhoji〉 indirectly by 〈Hanssiboungnok〉. 〈Limgeukjung〉 had been serialized in a daily newspaper『Chosunilbo』 from 1928.11.21 to 1939.7.4 and 1940.10 appeared one installment in a monthly magazine『Chokwang』. Therefore Hong Myong-hee died leaving the work 〈Limgeukjung〉 unfinished through often interruption and resumption. And 〈Limgeujungjun〉 in classical novel published on 1931 by Taehwaseokwan. Accordingly we can estimate the effect-relationship between 〈Limgeujungjun〉 and 〈Limgeukjung〉 from an several points of view as follows : 1. Hong Myong-hee had changed the title of the work from 〈Limgeujungjun〉 to 〈Limgeukjung〉 in the process of serialization. 2. The configuration of a character in 〈Limgeujungjun〉 as a classical novel is achieved by same materials and contents with 〈Limgeukjung〉 of Hong Myong-hee. therefore it described Lim Geu-jung as an existent person in the affirmative regardless of the unauthorized history. 3. 〈Limgeukjung〉 「hwajeukpyun」obtained of fictitious success by excellent description and composition in spite of acception the unauthorized history like 〈Limgeujungjun〉. 4. Hong Myong-hee had originally aimed at being koren atmosphere, nevertheless「Uihyuongjaepyun」and「hwajeukpyun」accepted 〈Suhochi〉 positively, so accordingly above-mentioned two pieces are different in nature from 「Bongdanpyun」ㆍ「pijangpyun」ㆍ「yangbanpyun」which are the first half of the work.

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          〈위씨절행록〉 연구

          곽정식(Kwak, Jung-Sik) 한국문학회 2011 韓國文學論叢 Vol.58 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          이 글은 〈위씨절행록〉에 나타난 여성의 열행을 중심으로 개별 작품으로서의 성격과 의의에 대해 논의하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 이에 먼저 구성적 특징과 서술의식을 중심으로 작품의 열녀소설적 성격에 대해 자세히 살펴보았다. 작품에서 위씨는 남편의 절도 정배와 시가에서의 축출을 계기로 수절형 열녀의 모습으로 그려지고, 열행의 실천 과정에서 작품 전편에 등장하는 여러 인물들과 서로 긴밀한 관계를 맺는다. 이로 보아, 인물 구성에서 위씨가 그 중심에 위치할 뿐 아니라, 사건 구성 또한 위씨의 열행을 중심으로 서사가 이루어지고 있음이 분명하다. 또한 서술의식을 보면, 주씨에 대해서는 매우 비판적, 부정적으로 서술하는 데 비해, 위씨에 대해서는 적극적으로 지지, 옹호하는 태도를 취하여 때로는 깊은 연민과 동정적 심정을 드러내기도 하고, 정절을 지키고자 하는 위씨의 신념과 행동에 대해 稱歎의 감정과 언사를 적극적으로 표출하였다. 아울러 위씨의 열행을 중심으로 개별 작품으로서의 독자적 성격과 의의에 대해 검토하였다. 남편의 절도 정배와 시가에서의 축출에서 비롯된 위씨의 열행은 친정에서의 가출과 원적사에서의 削髮爲僧으로 한층 더 구체화되고 있는데, 이때 원적사는 위씨가 훼절의 위협에서 벗어나 정절을 지킬 수 있는 곳이라는 점에서 의의를 지니지만, 다른 한편으로 자식으로서의 인륜을 저버려야 하는 곳인 데다 지리적, 공간적으로도 바깥세상과 격리된 채 死地와 별반 다름이 없는 곳으로 그려져 있어 夫婦之義를 위한 열행이 여성의 수난을 의미한다고 하겠다. 그리고 열행에 따르는 수난을 여타의 열녀소설과 달리 불교에 대한 작자의 긍정적인 시각을 반영하여 원적사에서의 삭발위승으로 형상화하고 있다는 점에서 특징적이라 할 수 있으며, 나아가 여주인공 위씨가 죽음에 상응하는 열행의 실천과정을 통해 불합리한 여성 현실에 대한 자각과 새로운 인식으로서의 질적 변화, 곧 존재론적 전환을 이룩하는 것으로 그려냄으로써, 단순히 여성의 열행을 美化, 顯彰하는 데서 그치는 여타의 열녀소설과는 그 성격을 크게 달리하는 바, 이 점에서도 〈위씨절행록〉에 대해 특별한 의의를 인정할 수 있을 것이다. The purpose of this study is to research the personality as a heroic woman story and it’s own individuality as a particular work on 〈Wissijulhaengrok〉. In constitutional feature of the characters, the greater part of characters are connected with leading a chaste of Wissi as a heroine. Therefore the cohabitation trouble between Wissi and Jussi is secondary, of minor importance, so much too it exercised an influence in part or in secondary on the whole of the work. The other side, in constitutional feature of the affairs, the cohabitation trouble between Wissi and Jussi takes charge an episodical functions in the internal of the work and leading a chaste of Wissi as a heroine takes charge important function as the core motive which assumes leadership of plot in the whole of the work. Therefore 〈Wissijulhaengrok〉 is a heroic woman story which is expansioned by the beginning and the end of leading a chaste of Wissi as the structure principle. Next connection the narration-consciousness of the writer, The writer takes negative, critical eyes upon Jussi but takes positive support, safeguard eyes upon Wissi. therefore 〈Wissijulhaengrok〉 has come into being by narration-consciousness of the writer same as admiration and social education. And relation the individuality as a particular work on 〈Wissijulhaengrok〉. A chaste of Wissi is correspond with death. Anyone cannot leading a chaste, if don’t prepare for death, it means inhumanity and harshness of woman’s reality. 〈Wissijulhaengrok〉 is similar to the other heroic woman stories in the point of which takes a chaste of woman as the core motive and describes woman’s sufferings, but the sufferings that is followed in the course of practiceing a chaste of Wissi are largely shaped by being ordained a priest of Onejuk temple(원적사) and in this respect I understood that 〈Wissijulhaengrok〉 was reflected the writer’s affirmative visual to Buddhism. Moreover a chaste of Wissi in 〈Wissijulhaengrok〉 is not ceased in a disaster of woman as a tragedy, introduces Wissi into a new being through process of qualitative alteration. therefore 〈Wissijulhaengrok〉 is diffferent largely with the other heroic woman stories which adjust the focus on beautification and awarding of woman’s chastity.

        • KCI등재

          강감찬 일생의 문학적 演變 양상과 그 의미

          곽정식(Kwak, Jung-sik) 한국어문학회 2011 語文學 Vol.0 No.113

          The purpose of this study is to research the literary amplification shape of Kanggamchan(강감찬)’ lifetime and it’ meaning. It is『koryosa』yolljeon <Kanggamchanjeon> that accepted the Kanggamchan's lifetime in literature for the first time. therefore the literary meaning of 『koryosa』yolljeon <Kanggamchanjeon> is in collusion with the literary meaning of yolljeon in general level. It brought the effect to emboss the achievements of Kanggamchan's lifetime before everything else. so it is possible for us to comprehend Kanggamchan's lifetime in a concrete way. 『koryosa』yolljeon <Kanggamchanjeon> has the possibility of narrative argument and contributed to expand it's ground level. In addition it has significance in the role as a script of the literary amplifications after ages. <Kanggamchanjeon> of Hongyangho has accepted the great part of 『koryosa』yolljeon <Kanggamchanjeon> and has amplificated partly by the way of omission the individuals and the incidents in the part of the achievements. so made the narrative focuss simplie and Kanggamchan as a war hero. <Kanggamchanjeon> of Woogisun is built by accepting『koryosa』yolljeon <Kanggamchanjeon> in fundamental and <Kanggamchanjeon> of Hongyangho partly. so it has been amplificated by the way of accepting positively the legendary materials, reorganization the settlement and fabricated figuration of individuals and the incidents. therefore it shows the inclination to old traditional style novel but it gets discoloration the historical meaning of the national opposition resultly because that the issue of the war is decided upon the order of the heavens. <Koryokangsijungjeon> of Bakgunwhae is built by translating Korean and Chinese writing of <Kanggamchanjeon> of Woogisun into the national language with the exemption of revision that distorted a national hero, Kanggamchan. therefore Bakgunwhae showed an anti-national and a pro-Japanese inclination in <Koryokangsijungjeon>. Last, <Kanggamchanjeon> of Jangdobin is built by accepting『koryosa』 yolljeon <Kanggamchanjeon> in fundamental, <Kanggamchanjeon> of Hongyangho partly and articles concerning Gulan's invasion in『koryosajullyo』positively. therefore it has meaning in describing Kanggamchan as a national hero and the history of the national opposition excluding the fictional elements.

        • KCI등재

          〈頭紅傳〉의 설화 수용 양상과 그 의미

          곽정식(Kwak, Jung-sik) 한국어문학회 2012 語文學 Vol.0 No.115

          The purpose of this study is to research the acceptant shape of legendary and the meaning in 〈Duhongjeon〉. First of all, 〈Duhongjeon〉 adopts the family’s scattering and reunion which was derived from a villainous retainer’s entrap and a nation’s crisis and it’s subjugation as the pivot narration. however it is not hero’s special capability but a blue-dragon’s leading role that develops the dramatic incidents in a work. In other words a blue-dragon works on driving force by present herself before a superior or dispatch a representative. Therefore 〈Duhongjeon〉 has a close internal connection with a legend of dragon, to put it concretely, ’115-2 a hero who helps one side by intervene in a dispute of dragons on tales-type of 『An Outline of Korean oral literature』. On the other hand the meaning’s intention of 〈Duhongjeon〉 are revealed the realization of the moral discipline, the gratitude-thought and the cult of success. The realization of morals and discipline is described by the family’s scattering and reunion, a nation’s crisis and it’s subjugation which was derived from a villainous retainer’s entrap and foreign invasion. The gratitude-thought is connected with a legend of dragon’s accommodation, yet the gratitude-thought of Duhong as a hero is described by obeying his parent and being loyal to the king, on the other hand the gratitude-thought of blue-dragon is described by helping Duhong who has rescued a blue-dragon from death. Lastly the intention of cult of success is described by obtaining a high post in the government and living in honor and wealth.

        • KCI등재

          국문학 : <사각전(謝角傳)>을 통해 본 천문성숙관념(天文星宿觀念)의 수용 양상과 의미 지향

          곽정식 ( Jung Sik Kwak ) 한국국어교육학회 2011 새국어교육 Vol.0 No.89

          <謝角傳>은 주인공 사각의 前身을 天上 角星으로 설정하고 있는데, 天文에서 각성은 道德과 戰爭을 주관한다고 하는 바, 이와 같은 천문사상의 수용 양상과 의미 지향에 대해 알아보았다. 주인공의 전신을 천상 각성으로 설정한 것은 그가 文武兼全의 자질과 능력을 갖춘 비범한 인물일 뿐더러 인간계에서의 삶이 천의의 수행 과정으로 예정되어 있음을 뜻한다. 이에 인간 사각은 문·무과에 장원급제하여 이부상서 겸 대원수에 오르고, 천자를 구원하여 부귀공명을 이룬 후 마침내 천상 각성으로 귀환하는 것으로 결구하였다. 한편 이와 같은 천문사상의 수용을 통해 인간 존재의 근원을 천상계에 두고 天人關係를 생명적 연관성에 입각하여 이해함으로써 인간 사각을 天命을 수행하는 인물로 그려내는 한편, 인간 사각이 다시 천상 각성이라는 본래의 자리로 귀환하는 것으로 결구하여 죽음의 不在, 곧 永生不滅을 지향하고 있으며, 끝으로 文武兼全의 자질과 능력으로 인간세상에서 부귀공명을 성취하는 것으로 그려놓았다. The purpose of this study is to research the acceptant shape of astronomy-constellations thought and inclination of the meaning of <Sagakjeon>. First, I inspected the acceptant shape of astronomy-constellations thought of <Sagakjeon> by dividing the hero`s lifetime into birth, learning, forming a relationship, establishment of himself in life, success, family reunion and an end. Sagak, as a hero is described as a person in exile of heavens Gaksung that supervises morality and war. therefore the birth of Sagak means appearance of a remarkable man who has both literary and military accomplishments. Secondly the actions of Sagak in the world of mortals are described as helping an Emperor of Yuan by driving away the bloody robbers. therefore it means accomplishing the divine will and resigning himself to Heaven`s will. The other side, the visual angle of a narrator is focused on the marriage and return to the heavens Gaksung in part of the family reunion and an end. First, the family reunion is constructed Sagak`s marriage and living in honor and wealth. Secondly, the end of Sagak and wives is described as returning to the heavens Gaksung, his native place. Lastly, I inspected inclination of the meaning. according to the results of discussion, <Sagakjeon> shows the thought of Heaven`s will, immortality of a human being and wealth as inclination of the meaning.

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