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        • KCI등재후보

          〈雲水誌〉의 敍事 構造的 特性 硏究

          곽정식(Kwak Jung-Sik),이재식(Lee Jae-Soon) 경성대학교 인문과학연구소 2008 인문학논총 Vol.13 No.2

          본 연구는 조선조 후기의 장편국문소설인 〈운수지〉를 대상으로 서사 구조적 특성에 관해 논의하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 우선 〈운수지〉는 다양댄 서사 구조를 원용하고 서사의 편폭을 계속 확장하는 가운데서 서사의 중심축이 분화되는 것으로 나타나는데, 우선 도입부에서는 서사의 중심축이 宋나라 충신 岳飛를 중심으로 그의 가문에 놓여져 있다. 그러나 岳飛의 사후에 옥황상제에 의하여 충의지사들이 신선으로 인간 세상에 적강하는 것을 계기로 서사의 중심축은 9인의 충의지사의 가문으로 분화, 확대되고, 또 이로 인하여 9인의 충의지사들의 가문이 서로 대등한 비중을 지니게 된다. 또한 〈운수지〉에는 서사 전개상 중요한 사건으로서, 옥황상제에 의해 충의지사와 난신적자가 인간세상에 적강하거나 환생한다는 것, 그리고 원나라 과거에 장원급제하여 부마 간택을 받은 악문용이 大宋憤義將軍이라 자칭하고 문경천, 육봉일 등과 宋朝 中興의 뜻을 같이하게 된 것, 요·금에 이어 원나라를 정벌하고 마침내 송조를 중흥한 충의지사들이 천하를 吳王에게 맡기고 西湖에 은거하여 풍월주인으로 돌아간 것 등을 들 수 있는 데, 이와 같은 사건 전개를 위한 국면 전환이 오랜 시간에 걸쳐 여러 사건이 진행되는 가운데서 단계적, 점진적으로 이루어고 있는 바 이러한 단계적 서사 진행을 통해서 독자들에게 긴장감과 흥미를 유발하는 효과를 얻고 있다. 아울러 〈운수지〉에서는 충의지사와 난신적자라는 서로 대비되는 두 人物群을 설정하고, 이들의 덕성과 행적, 결말 등을 비교하는 한편, 몇 차례 관계의 역전을 거듭한 끝에 충의지사들이 최종적으로 승리를 거두는 결말을 통하여 忠節意識의 鼓吹와 같은 전통적인 주제를 효과적으로 그려놓았다. The purpose of this study is to research the narrative structural traits of 〈Unsoochi〉, a korean classical novel. I epitomize the subject matters which discussed in the upper parts as following. The first narrative structural trait is a specialization of the central axis. In the part of the introduction the central axis of the narrative is placed on Ak Bi's family. But in the part of the development the central axis of the narrative is specialized and magnificated along the nine familys who are men of loyalty and uprightness. The second narrative structural trait is the gradual development of the narrative. the important events in 〈Unsoochi〉 are the banishment of men of loyalty and uprightness, the stirring up to revive the Song Empire by men of loyalty and uprightness and enjoying to converse with nature. These events are combined to turnover the aspect of affairs in the narrative development, though these diversion is not accomplished once for all or rapidly, but step by step, gradually for a long time. and these gradual progress of the nan-ative arouse reader’s a state of tension and the interest. The last narrative structural trait is contradiction of characters and the relation-reversion. there are setted up two contradiction characters in 〈Unsoochi〉. though the author described effectively the traditional subjet matter by the triumph of men of loyalty and uprightness, comparing one with another in the moral character, the achievements and the death of two contradiction characters, and repeating several relation-reversion.

        • KCI등재

          활자본 고소설 〈林巨丁傳〉의 창작 방법과 洪命憙 〈林巨正〉과의 관계

          곽정식(Kwak Jung-sik) 한국어문학회 2011 語文學 Vol.0 No.111

          The purpose of this study is to research the creative writing method of 〈Limgeujungjun〉 in classical novel with printed book and it's connection with 〈Limgeukjung〉 of Hong Myong-hee. The historical facts of Limgeujung as an existent person had been written in 『Myongjongsillok』and『Kijaejabki』ㆍ『Sunghosasul』ㆍ『youlchotongki』 etc as the unauthorized history records. In general the records of 『Myongjongsillok』play the role of the central axis in an epoch-making development of the affairs, besides the character description and the dramatic incidents mainly rely upon unofficial history in 〈Limgeujungjun〉. And on the other hand 〈Limgeujungjun〉 accepted 〈Hanssiboungnok〉 positively and consequently accepted 〈Suhoji〉 indirectly by 〈Hanssiboungnok〉. 〈Limgeukjung〉 had been serialized in a daily newspaper『Chosunilbo』 from 1928.11.21 to 1939.7.4 and 1940.10 appeared one installment in a monthly magazine『Chokwang』. Therefore Hong Myong-hee died leaving the work 〈Limgeukjung〉 unfinished through often interruption and resumption. And 〈Limgeujungjun〉 in classical novel published on 1931 by Taehwaseokwan. Accordingly we can estimate the effect-relationship between 〈Limgeujungjun〉 and 〈Limgeukjung〉 from an several points of view as follows : 1. Hong Myong-hee had changed the title of the work from 〈Limgeujungjun〉 to 〈Limgeukjung〉 in the process of serialization. 2. The configuration of a character in 〈Limgeujungjun〉 as a classical novel is achieved by same materials and contents with 〈Limgeukjung〉 of Hong Myong-hee. therefore it described Lim Geu-jung as an existent person in the affirmative regardless of the unauthorized history. 3. 〈Limgeukjung〉 「hwajeukpyun」obtained of fictitious success by excellent description and composition in spite of acception the unauthorized history like 〈Limgeujungjun〉. 4. Hong Myong-hee had originally aimed at being koren atmosphere, nevertheless「Uihyuongjaepyun」and「hwajeukpyun」accepted 〈Suhochi〉 positively, so accordingly above-mentioned two pieces are different in nature from 「Bongdanpyun」ㆍ「pijangpyun」ㆍ「yangbanpyun」which are the first half of the work.

        • 〈李生窺墻傳〉의 寓意性 考察

          곽정식(Kwak Jung-Sik),이복자(Lee Bok-ja) 경성대학교 인문과학연구소 2003 인문학논총 Vol.8 No.-

          Isaenggyujangjeon(李生窺墻傳) is regarded as a work expressing allegorically the campaign of King Danjong(端宗)'s restoration. This is, also, a work adding two accidents centering around Honggeonjeok(紅巾賊)'s rebellion. It can be seen that this is composed of three stories, because another accident is added to this work in the form of an inserted poem(揷入詩). This paper is to examine the allegory of Isaenggyujangjeon centering around its backgrounds, characters, accidents, inserted poems, and so on. First, the backgrounds of this novel are Seonjuk-ri(善竹理), the Naktagyo(낙타교), Ulju(蔚州), and Bokju(復州). Seonjuk-ri, the Naktagyo, and Seonggyungwan(成均館) in Songdo(松島) are located in the same places as present, so it serves to raise the reality of historical accidents. Isaeng(李生)'s going down to Ulju, the family origin of Kim Siseop(金時習)'s mother Mrs. Jang(張氏) being from Ulju, and his mother's many relatives there - judging from these, Ulju is closely related to Kim Si -seop. Second, the characters of this novel are Isaeng, his parents, Choerang(崔?), and Sibit(시비). Of these Isaeng lives near the Naktagyo, and under his parents' order, he goes down to Ulju without a word to Choerang, and is also a passive and mean man who abandons his family and escapes alone in Honggeonjeok's rebellion. Kim Si-seop looks at Sayuksin(死六臣) tortured after the failure of King Danjong‘s restoration, but takes no measures to help them and wanders the country for the pain. It proves Isaeng to be Kim Si-seop. Choerang goes down to Bokju and is killed by thieves there. His parent before Honggeonjeok's rebellion is regarded as King Sejo(世祖) except whom King Danjong has no one to tum to, and his parents after the rebellion are able to be seen as faithful subjects as Sayuksin. Finally, Sibi serves as a foil to the atmosphere of the novel. Third, the happenings of the novel are Honggeonjeok's rebellion, and Choerang's and her parents' death. The former means that King Danjong is expelled from his throne and goes down to Yeongwol(寧越) owing to the failure of his restoration. The latter reveals allegorically the death of King Danjong's and his six royal subjects'(死六臣) by King Sejo's followers. And Isaeng's burying Choerang s parents at Ogwansan(五冠山) is compared with Kim Si-seop's burying five corpses at Noryangjin(鷺梁津). Fourth, inserted poems involve the fear caused by the failure of King Danjong's restoration and the advice of watching villainous subjects like a parrot. Six poems which Choerang gives to Isaeng show King Danjong's exile to Yeongwol by the failure of his restoration and their betrayal caused by the trial of his faithful subjects. They are written in "Yeongangcheopjangdo"(烟江疊壯圖) and "Yuhwanggomokdo"(幽皇古木圖). Poems compared to four seasons reveal their meanings clearly when each is connected with one another. A poem in the first picture scroll shows royal subjects arrested by King Sejo's followers owing to the failure of King Danjong's restoration, and a writer's helpless grief. A poem in the second picture scroll reveals Geumseongdaegun(錦城大君)'s plotting a rebellion, and he is symbolized as a virgin of the south. A poem in the third picture scroll presents Geumseongdaegun's death and the people's bitterness due to the exposure of his plotting a rebellion. Finally, a poem in the fourth picture scroll allegorises a story about King Danjong looking at crows in crowds in the night sky and dropping tears, foreseeing his death. Finally, weeping willow trees surrounding Choerang's house wall suggest Suyang(King Sejo)'s followers, and Choerang living there represents metaphorically King Danjong who demises his throne and is confined in Changdeokgung(昌德宮). In conclusion, Isaenggyujangjeon is able to be seen as a work expressing allegorically from the failure of King Danjong's restoration to his death.

        • KCI등재

          설화에서 본 여성 주체의 자각과 성장

          곽정식(Kwak. Jung-sik) 동양한문학회(구 부산한문학회) 2003 동양한문학연구 Vol.18 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          본고는 설화적 전승에서 여성 주체의 자각과 성장이 어떻게 이루어지고 있는가를 살펴보고, 아울러 그것이 조선후기 소설사와 어떻게 접맥되고 있는가를 고찰한 것이다. 먼저 주몽신화를 통해 여성의 수난이 구체화 되는 한편, 남녀 혹은 부부관계, 부녀관계, 모자관계에서 후대 여성의 삶이 보여줄 수 있는 온갖 수난의 模型이 이미 거의 다 갖추어져 있음을 살폈다. 그럼에도 불구하고 신화는 자아와 세계의 동질적인 관계로 인해 여성의 자각이나 주체성이 문제가 될 수 없었으나, 자아와 세계가 분열되어 어느 한쪽이 일방적인 우위성을 지니는 전설·민담시대가 전개되자, 세 계는 자아가 이전에 경험해 보지 못한 심각한 저해 요인이 되었고, 이에 따라서 자아는 점차 의식과 행동의 주체가 되어 세계를 대상화하고 나름대로 삶을 개척하지 않으면 안 되게 되었다. 이러한 사정을 ‘호동왕자와 낙랑공주’, ‘도미처’, ‘溫達說話’, ‘薯童說話’, ‘내 복에 산다’, ‘양반 아들과 백정딸’, ‘盧縝說話’, ‘李起築說話’ ‘夫娘說話’를 통해서 자세하게 살펴보았다. 이와 같은 설화적 전승을 통해 처음 溫達說話에서 구체화되고 夫娘說話에서 전형화된 것으로 보이는 여성우위의 서사적 전통은 문학적 측면에서 조선후기 여성영웅소설의 출현에 직접적인 영향을 주었던 것으로 이해하였다. 그리하여 여성영웅소설은 오랜 설화적 전승에서의 여성우위의 전통을 이어받아, 편협하고 불평등한 성별 정체성을 극복, 여성의 사회적 진출과 참여를 가능하게 하는 한편 여성의 주체적 의지에 따른 愛情成就, 家父長的 位階의 解體, 家門의 守護와 家系繼承 등의 여성의식을 적극적으로 형상화할 수 있게 되었던 것으로 보았다. The purpose of this study is to research the self-consciousness and growth of woman-subject in the legendary. First, Chumong(주몽) myth shows the woman’s suffering, in the relations man and woman, husband and wife, father and daughter, sun and mother. and the narrative tradition of woman’s suffering has been spreaded out keenly by taleses, narrative ballads, songs of a sorceress and old traditional fictions for a long time in the later ages. Secondary, we looked around that a woman improved her lot independently in the suffering. Those cases are Domi’s wife(도미처)story, Ondal(온달) story, Soedong(서동) story and others. In the narrative tradition of woman superiority as those in the late period of Chosun dynasty, Purang(부랑) sto교 was descried as which a woman takes an active parts in the society. Finally, the narrative tradition of woman superiority has a significance in the history of literature by exercising it's influence over the appearance of woman-heroine fictions(여성영웅소설).

        • KCI등재

          〈頭紅傳〉의 설화 수용 양상과 그 의미

          곽정식(Kwak, Jung-sik) 한국어문학회 2012 語文學 Vol.0 No.115

          The purpose of this study is to research the acceptant shape of legendary and the meaning in 〈Duhongjeon〉. First of all, 〈Duhongjeon〉 adopts the family’s scattering and reunion which was derived from a villainous retainer’s entrap and a nation’s crisis and it’s subjugation as the pivot narration. however it is not hero’s special capability but a blue-dragon’s leading role that develops the dramatic incidents in a work. In other words a blue-dragon works on driving force by present herself before a superior or dispatch a representative. Therefore 〈Duhongjeon〉 has a close internal connection with a legend of dragon, to put it concretely, ’115-2 a hero who helps one side by intervene in a dispute of dragons on tales-type of 『An Outline of Korean oral literature』. On the other hand the meaning’s intention of 〈Duhongjeon〉 are revealed the realization of the moral discipline, the gratitude-thought and the cult of success. The realization of morals and discipline is described by the family’s scattering and reunion, a nation’s crisis and it’s subjugation which was derived from a villainous retainer’s entrap and foreign invasion. The gratitude-thought is connected with a legend of dragon’s accommodation, yet the gratitude-thought of Duhong as a hero is described by obeying his parent and being loyal to the king, on the other hand the gratitude-thought of blue-dragon is described by helping Duhong who has rescued a blue-dragon from death. Lastly the intention of cult of success is described by obtaining a high post in the government and living in honor and wealth.

        • 19世紀 베트남의 「大南行義列女傳」연구

          곽정식(Kwak Jung-Sik) 경성대학교 인문과학연구소 2002 인문학논총 Vol.5 No.-

          The purpose of this study is to research the phases as a biography, the writer's attitude and the literature-historical meaningness of 「Dai Nam henguye yeolyeochon(大南行義列女傳)」 of VietNam's in the 19th century. I epitomize the subject matter which is discussed in the upper parts as followings : 1. The writing times of 「Dai Nam henguye yeolyeochon(大南行義列女傳)」 1) Henguyechon(行義傳) 13 volumes and the yeolyeochon(列女傳) 12 volumes are written separately between the 1802 and 1847. 2) The first editing of 「Dai Nam henguye yeolyeochon(大南行義列女傳)」 is accomplished between 1841 and 1847, the government period of THieu Tri(紹治) in upper limit. 2. The results of the contents in 「Dai Nam henguye yeolyeochon(大南行義列女傳)」 are as followings ; 1) Henguyechon(行義傳) 13 volumes are constituted with the episodes about the man's social integrity in the home or in the society and yeolyeochon(列女傳) 12 volumes are constituted with the episodes about the woman's faithfulness as domestic integrity. 2) Henguyechon(行義傳) 13 volumes and yeolyeochon(列女傳) 12 volumes are all dependent upon the explanation or the explanatory description in an account mode. However it is derived from the ideological pointing in motives of the writing. 3. The literature-historical significances of 「Dai Nam henguye yeolyeochon(大南行義列女傳)」are as followings ; 1) The literary production which was born by the aspiration after political equilibrium. 2) An expediency of the social enlightenment. 3) The artistic representation of the spirit of independence or the racial identity of VietNam.

        • KCI등재

          <雲水誌>의 중국 역사 수용 양상과 그 의미

          곽정식(Kwak, Jung-Sik) 한국문학회 2009 韓國文學論叢 Vol.53 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          이 글은 <운수지>에서 중국 역사의 수용이 어떻게 이루어지고 있으며,역사 사실을 바탕으로 작가가 어떻게 작품 내용을 허구화하는지 알아보고,또 이를 통해서 그 의미하는 바가 무엇인지를 살펴보려는 데 목적이 있다. <운수지>는 중국 南宋의 對金․對元抗爭이라는 역사적 사실에 바탕을 두되 작가에 의해 허구적인 재창조가 적극적으로 이루어진 작품이다. 먼저 金의 兀朮과 내통한 간신 秦檜․萬俟卨의 모함과 계략에 의해 충신 岳飛가 억울하게 죽었다고 하는 宋史의 사실 기록과는 달리 <운수지>에서 작가는 婚事문제로 私怨을 품은 王甲의 두 딸이 진회․만사설의 배필이 되어 악비의 寃死를 주도하는 것으로 그려냄으로써 난신적자의 부도덕성을 한층 강조하는 방향으로 재창조하였다.이어 옥황상제가 주재하는 사후세계를 배경으로 충의지사와 난신적자의 환생담을 결구하고,이를 바탕으로 남송의 對金․對元抗爭을 동시적으로 수용하는 가운데 송조 중흥의 허구적인 서사가 전개되는데,이때 진회․만사설과 그들의 처를 金․元의 태자․공주로 설정하여 이민족 오랑캐와 동일시함으로써 민족적 적개심을 반영하고 忠義의 뜻을 되새기게 하는 한편,충의지사중 악문용을 제외한 8인을 여성인물로 설정하고 이들을 중심으로 전개되는 남녀 결연담을 통해 소설을 읽는 재미와 함께 바람직한 결혼관을 제시하고자 하였다.끝으로 <운수지>에서 朱元璋의 明나라 건국을 계기로 송조 중흥의 허구적인 서사가 마무리되고 있는 것은 작가가 春秋의 大一統主義에 입각한 中華的正統論을 수용한 결과라고 할 수 있다. This paper aims at recognizing the literary acceptance of chinese history and considering it's meaning in <Unsoochi>. As the time background of <Unsoochi> is just apart of history and also the principal characters are just connected the existential persons of history, we check the historical facts which areappeared in <Unsoochi> from 『Songsa』. <Unsoochi> is awork which describes the wrangle of South-Song dynasty against Gum and One as the other race's nation. <Unsoochi> generally referred to the record of『Songsa』when it was centering on the informations about characters and incidents. On the other hand, the relationship among the wrangle of South-Song dynasty against Gum and One as the other race's nations. was changing or expanding positively on the basis of historical record. From <Unsoochi>, we can find the positive acceptance of chinese history concerning the conflict between Akbi and Zinhwe as faithful retainer and traitor of South-Song dynasty. The writer is trying to explain the reason for the historical facts why Akbi died under a false accusation and failed in there construction of Song dynasty, This content is filled with fighting,revenge and sexual relationship between faithful retainer and traitor by the writer's extreme imagination. Though the historical facts are mentioned in fragments, we can find out that the author not only has deep knowledge of the wrangle against Gum and One as the other race's nations in the history of South-Song dynasty, but also in aware of <Mumokwangjungchungnok> as a chinse novel. This work showed us racial animosity and legitimism of Chinese.

        • KCI등재

          〈韓氏報應錄〉의 형성 과정과 소설사적 의의

          곽정식(Kwak Jung-sik) 한국어문학회 2009 語文學 Vol.0 No.105

          The purpose of this study is to research the formative process and the significances of Novel-History of 〈Han-ssi Boung nok(한씨보응록)〉. In our korean old classical fiction history, 〈Han-ssi Boung nok〉 came into being from the effect of 〈Suho chi(수호지)〉 which had been introduced from China. 〈Han-ssi Boung nok〉 was lined up several parts with the substances of 〈Suho chi〉, and the configuration of character, as a hero Han Myunghwe (한명회) imitated 108 jolly fellows of 〈Suho chi〉. As well as 〈Han-ssi Boung nok〉 could be come into being by reconstruction Han Myunghwe(한명회) as a devoted retainer into jolly fellow of 〈Suho chi〉 with the realization of 〈Hong Changgun jeon(홍장군전)〉 as a momentum. and because of this, 〈Han-ssi Boung nok〉 accepted the substances of 〈Hong Changgun jeon〉 partially. Meanwhile 〈Han-ssi Boung nok〉 accepted the various tradditional legendary literatures positively and reorganized boldly, but accepted historical facts of Myunghwe(한명회) as a existential human fragmentary and superficially. Finally, Concerning the significances of 〈Han-ssi Boung nok〉 in the novel-history, I discussed in two points of view. in the first place, because that is one of a few works which are considered the effects of 〈Suho chi(수호지)〉, and at the same time it aims counteraction against the control and suppression of an immoral foreign power by inspiration the militaristic spirit, chivalrous and justice spirit.

        • KCI등재

          저승설화의 전승 양상과 현실주의적 성격

          곽정식(Kwak Jung-sik) 한국어문학회 2008 語文學 Vol.0 No.101

          The purpose of this study is to research the aspect of transmission and the realistic character of the Underworld Legendary. I epitomize the subject matters which discussed in the upper parts as following. First, concerning the aspect of transmission in the Underworld Legendary, the story of moral was appeared in reflection moral demands which means a judgement of virtue and vice during one’s lifetime. The hell and heaven which are described in the Underworld Legendary contributed to promotion of virtue and reproval of vice. and through the process of transmission, it assumed a different aspect gradually as that a dead person accumulated virtuous deeds by borrowing property of other people’s storehouse in the Underworld. The story of life-lengthen is that a person born a short life lengthens oneself lifetime actively. and it takes high specific gravity in the Underworld Legendary, 〈Dongbangsag〉 story is regarded as a typical one in the story of life-lengthen. The story of the Underworld officials is that a person of this world after death is becamed a Underworld official. However the story of the Underworld officials displayed a various changes according as the a dead person’s rebirth by mistake of Underworld messenger is transfigurated towad promotion the interest. Last, the story of joking is appeared in the later ages. it is mostly untrustworthy joking. but it has wit and tact, or criticizes absurdity, fault, and lack of enlightenment of person or society. So l think that the story of joking is formed in the later ages concerning the secularization of society in the whole. In the mean time, the Underworld is called the Underworld vaguely as it is in the Underworld Legendary. But in such a case of explanation or description, it appeared as extremely human and actuality-experiential shape. so we cannot distinguish between the Underworld and the human society. also in the subjective meaning the Underworld Legendary heading toward the human society of this world, configurating general human needs of macrobiosis and showing that it cannot be distinguished between the Underworld officials and the human of this world, it exhibits the realistic character or attitude obviously. moreover the story of joking shows the realistic character or attitude because of the innuendo’s purpose and the target.

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