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        • 대학의 이념과 실용주의에 관한 연구

          공석영 동덕여자대학교 1999 人文科學硏究 Vol.5 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        • 美國靑年文化에 관한 硏究

          공석영 同德女子大學校 1991 同大論叢 Vol.21 No.1

          Ⅰ. Introduction In terms of social political point of view, the 20st century is called "Me" Generation. What is more important, in relation to Young people, the "Me" Generation focuses on the person, especially on the self. Every nation faces the problem of incorporating its youth and young adults into society. Indeed, the continuity and vitality of a nation depends upon how well young people are integrated into the primary social, political, and economic institutions. Throughout history, surges in the youth population have been associated with societal stress, to the point of sometimes damaging the relations between age groups. The problem of integrating youth into society takes on an increasing sense of urgency in view of the rapidly growing numbers of young people around the world today. The problem of absorbing youth into society is already apparent on a global scale. The status of youth and their opportunities to become productive adults have been recognized as key international problems of the 1990s. As the United Nations' Advisory Committee for the international year of the Youth(1985) concluded in its report to the General Assembly : "The principal issue will continue to center on the problems encountered in integrating youth into the overall life of a society". The student activity program is an integral part of the educational offering of all schools. The school recognizes the importance of the student of informal educational opportunities and it encourages participation in special interest groups ; students share in the planning and operation of the activity program. The student government strives to stimulate closer fellowship among students, to promote student activities, to encourage participation in school affairs, to help adjust(solve) student problems, to stimulate academic achievements, and to provide a closer relationship between students and administration. The purpose of this study is to provide the student with an opportunity for educaional, cultural, and social growth through a diversified a activity program. Ⅱ. Outlines of the Study A. Proposal : To study youth culture : 1. to analyse the aspects of youth culture. 2. to find out the problems and characteristics of the group activity. 3. to grasping the present aspects of the youth culture. B. Statement of the problem : Youth Culture prevails among differing ethnic group at the University of Massachusetts. C. The contents of this study : There are 5 categories & 9 group activities. a. 5 categories ; 1. Language culture, 2. Spiritual culture, 3. Behavioral culture, 4. Environmental culture, and 5. Sexual culture. b. 9 Extracurricular activities ; 1. How to participate 2. Motive to join 3. Nature of participation 4. Utility program 5. Decision making process 6. Problem of group activity 7. Expenses involved in gruop activities 8. Extent of group activities 9. Personal contribution. D. Data collection : Tools 1. theoretical study, materials, literature, articles, dissertation, etc. 2. Surveys(questionnaire ; youth culture, extracurricular activities.) 3. Delphi technique : interview with specialists E. Definition of term : Youth Culture. "Youth," according to Keniston(1970) is a transition period which differs from adolescence in several ways. In youth, there is a conflict beween trying to maintain an autonomus sense of self and being socially involved. This differs from the cove adolescent conflict, which involves a struggle for self-definition. In addition, Keniston claims that adolescents may be characterized as trying to develop toward an "endpoint," that is, an identity on self-definition. Youth, however, already have such a sense of self and continually value development and change. They dislike "being in a rut," or 'getting nowhere' with their lives, and value the ability "to keep moving" in life. So to summarize, the adolescent-because of the impact of all the changes converging on him or her-may be described as in a state of crises, a state of search for self-definition. To define youth as those between the ages of 15 and 25 may no longer be valid. Youth, therefore, is defined exclusively as middle-and upper-class young people pursuing their education. Other experts define youth as all those who are within a particular age category. Many contributors and many participants in UNESCO regional youth conferences agree that the definition of youth applies to all the 'young' and define being 'young' as extending to age 30 or 35, depending on their natinal experiences. As we enter the 1990s, our definition and understanding of youth have certainly become broader and more flexible than those first put foward in the 1960s. Young people in the city or the countryside, those in school and those with little or no access to education, young women with their specific social functions. In colleges, some dormitories are coed(boys and girls live on the same floor but not in the same room). needs and rights, young members of ethnic and linguistic minorities, young people bearing the burden of physical/mental, and emotional hardships : The Terms of Youth Culture : A general term referring to the clothing, life styles, leisure-time activities, jargon and other characteristics associates with adolescence.(1) All those attitudes, behaviors, and material objects which characterize, and set apart, persons in their teens and early twenties.(2) They are still oriented toward fullfilling their Parents' desire, but they look very much to their perrs for approval as well. Consequently, our society has within its midst a set of small teenage societies, which focus teenage interests and attitudes on things far removed from adult responsibilities, and which develop standards that lead away from those goals established by the large society.(3) Ⅲ. Research Results & Conclusions Youth culture is a universal phenomenon. Ties phenomenon of 'adolescence' was named at the turn of the century by G.Stanly Hall(1904). It signalled the emergence of a period of life beyond childhood but before adoption of adult responsibilitie. Those children who did not go directly into the labor force, but continued into high school occupied this emerging stage of life. As this fraction of the child population who stayed on in school continued to grow, the period of adolescence began to encompass the whole age gruop of 13 or 14 to 17. When this happedned in the 1930s and 1940s, a distinctive pattern of life began to emerge, around the high school. Some sociologist(Gordon, 1957 ; Coleman, 1961) described this pattern of life in the 1950s as a pattern in which high school athletics, cars, clothing, and dating played an important part and began to write of an "adolescent society : or an "adolescent culture". Since then, there have been ongoing disputes about whether there existed an adolescent culture, or whether teen-agers were not more adult-oriented than appeared from description of the adolescent culture. But during the 1960s and 1970s, a new phenomenon developed, one that was named by Kenneth Keniston(1970) : the phenomenon of youth. Keniston pointed out, as Hall had done for adolescents seventy years earlier, that there was emerging a new period of life, after adolescence but before assumption of adult responsibilities. He called this period "youth", and the term youth has come to be more and more widely used for a segment of the population, some of whom are adolescent, some of whom are beyond adolescence, but not yet of full independent adult status. The term "adolescent" and the period of adolescence, but not yet of full independent adult status. The term "adolescent" and the period of adolescence has been in part absorbed by this more inclusive category of "youth". As college attendance grew in the 1960s, this segment came to include a larger and larger fraction of the post-high school age group, along with the high school age group. With this expansion in the 1960s came a set of distinctive patterns of activity associated with youth, but a more diverse array than those of the adolescent society in the high school, these patterns include style of dress, ranging from high involvement with new fashions to studied rejection of accepted norms of appropriate dress. They include new forms of music, and sometimes associated with it, drug use. They include small intense subgroups, with content ranging from religious and mystical belief to political activity. These and other attributes can be said to describe a "youth culture", not because they constitute a homogenious culture, nor because they characterize all youth, but because when taken together, they are activities initiated by youth and pursued more by youth than by adults. It is still the case that many young persons are little involved in the "youth culture", and are fully occupied in preparation for adult responsibilities. But the youth culture in all its varieties nevertheless exists, and it is important to examine it in some detail. This examination will not attempt to describe youth culture in all its facets. That would entail a study of the rock music culture, the hippy culture, the athletic crowd in high schools, the motorcycle cult, the surers, the new left, the drug culture, the Jesus cult, Hare Krishna, mysticism, the college campus culture, and others, some international, others highly localized. Indeed, a description of the present varietieds of youth culture would be quickly incorrect because the culture changes rapidly. One problem facing complex industrial societies is how different forms of cultural plurality can coexist. A plurality of culture does not mean that various cultural groups have equal access to political power or to imposing their cultural patterns on society. The interest of subcultures in the United States, can be traced to the fact that, historically, the United States was faced with the problem of an immigrant labor force. Disparate groups from different ethnic orjins, speaking differernt languages, with different cultural backgrounds were not conducive to the development of a common class-consciousness. Analysis of Youth culture and subcultures can be summarised by dividing them into generational and structural explanations. Youth for Eisenstadt(1956) is a 'transitory phase between the world of childhood and adult world'. Youth and adolescence were central areas of study in the 1930s in America as illustrated by the American Socio-logical Association's conference in 1934 at Yale. The anthropologist Ralph Linton(1942) also touched on the idea that young people had their own distinctive culture patterns. Youth culture develops inverse values to the adult world of productive work and conformity to routine and responsibility. Youth develops its own values concerning consumption, hedonistic leisure activities and irresponsibility. The characteristics Parson describes suggest high school teenage culture, concern with glamour, looking attractive, having fun, all located in the educational system. It is a world peopled with conforming figures, athletics, football jocks, prom queens and cheer leaders. At the time, through the media, this aspect of American youth culture was influential not only in the United States, but in Britain, Canada and Europe. For Parsons(1964), youth culture is related to the bridge between the dependency of childhood and the independence of adulthood. It is a sort of adolescent 'rite de passage', and essentially a middle-class and working-class youth exists only on the periphery. Popular music was a central feature of youth culture, in particular the consumption of discs aimed as specific age groups. With this expansion in the 1960s came a set of distinctive patterns, of activity associated with youth, but a more diverse arrary than those of the adolescent society in high school. To study Youth Culture, the questionnaire were given to 200 students by random sampling and 150 answers which is a 75% respones, It was have been analized. 1. The language culture : The usage of slang is on average more than 10 per day for a person. ex) Yeah=Yes, Hi=Hellow, That's cool=Great, looking neat or good.. Wicked=Very good, Bucks=Dollars, Dude=guy, Chic=Girl, .... To observe the language usage is a very important task in the educational situation. 2. The spiritual culture : The major concern of young people in America are mainly academic problems(school work, school assignment), uncertain future(get a job, want to be...), and human relationships(family, boy/girl friends,..) 3. The behavioral culture : Behavioral Culture ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Contents\Divisions Yes(%) No(%) Total(%) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Smoking 14(9.3) 136(90.7) 150(100.0) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Alchol 116(77.3) 34(22.7) 150(100.0) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Drugs 15(10.0) 135(90.0) 150(100.0) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dance 138(92.0) 12(8.0) 150(100.0) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Vehicles 135(90.0) 15(10.0) 150(100.0) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Gamble 36(24.0) 114(76.0) 150(100.0) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Video Game 56(37.3) 94(62.7) 150(100.0) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Clothes, Jeans 92(61.3) 58(38.7) 150(100.0) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 〃 Ripped Wear 26(17.3) 124(82.7) 150(100.0) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 〃 School Mark 48(32.0) 102(68.0) 150(100.0) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hair Style:free response ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- M. average ; 60.0. crew cut/flap top ; 12.5 pony tail ; 8.3 wraped/curly/punk 5.0%, etc.. F. average ; 43.8. long hair ; 43.6 flip/curly/punk ; 5.0% etc... 4. The environmental culture : Environmental culture is investigated to check the level of academic atmosphere. The library, which is the core of knowledge, is the main focus of the investigation. The tower library is 28th floors, and seats 3,000 at the sametime. There are guidance and counseling center, mental health center, family housing office, dormitory, health service center, career center, 5. The sexual culture : The result of study about boy/girl friends relatinships is following. Boy/Girl friends ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Contents\Divisions M(%) F(%) (%) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Yes 38(52.8%) 54(69.2%) 92(61.3%) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- No 34(47.2%) 24(30.8%) 58(38.7%) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Objectives(%) 72(100.0) 78(100.0) 150(100.0) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I found that there are 92 students out of 150 students have boy/girl friends. There are tendences such the as following. see each other 3-5 times/week (31.%), everdcay meeting(20.6%), 1~2 times/week (17.4%), living together or marriage(9.8%), In the United States, individual have great freedom and opportunity to meet others. They often go on dates in their early teens without a chaperone, share expenseeon dates, and even live together without being married. Teenagers meet members of the opposite sex at school, parties, and other B. The extracurricular activities To study group dynamics, I selected 20 out 260 groups by random sampling. the questionnaires were given to 200 students, and 87 answers which is a 43.5% response, have been analized. 1. How to participate : The results of research on the question How did you participate in extracurricular activities? are the following : In the case of first-joiners, they are mostly influenced by friends, seniors, introducing of others(63.2%), and then responding to advertisement, special invitation or information(23.0%) 2. Motive to join : There are tendencies such as the following ; to cultivate wider social awareness(48.3%), to build human relationships(28.7%), to establish a broader perspective of life(12.6%), to learn hobbies and interest(6.9%), to obtain religious life(3.4%). 3. Favorite program : There are tendencies such as the following ; social/political/economic issues(74.7%), seminars, workshop(11.5%), drama/plays/dance, etc(11.5%), social services(2.2%). 4. Purpose of group activity : There are tendencies such as the following ; to obtain an opportunity for basic culture and knowledge(55.2%), to improve communication(26.4%), to improve expression skills(11.5%), to know more about myself(5.7%). 5. Decision making process : There are tendencies such as the following ; by concensus(48.3%), by executive(29.9%), by the president or group leader(17.2%). 6. Main problem of group activity : There are tendencies such as the following ; lack of facilities and funds(41.4%), contradiction of goals(23.0%), differences among members(17.2%), lack of leadership(11.5%). 7. Expenses involved in group activities : There are tendencies such as the following ; (per month) $0-5(51.7%), $6-10(18.4%), $20-(5.7%), $11-20(1.1%). 8. Extend of group activities : There are tendencies such as the following ; #1(41.4%), #2-3(40.2%), #4-5(12.6%), #-(3.4%). The kind of a society adults offer youth is associated with young people's chance to develop their full human potential, to become responsible adults, and to participate in the future development of the nation in which they live. To a large extent, social integration is determined by the structure of society itself, a key aspect of which is a nation's level of development. National development has been defined as "improvement in the basic aspects of life", in which case all these different indicators of development become improvement. According to a United nations report(1981), the areas of national development most crucial to young people's well-being aroused the world are economic development, employment, urbanization, health care, literacy, education, and the cance to participate in politics. In summary, the characteristics of American youth culture, which distinguish it from adult culture, have been presented, namely, norms, sentiments, appearance, dress, language, and customs, all patterned with rigorous conformity. The broadest contours of this youth culture have been revealed also by the widespread conflict between youth and adult socializing instructions. This withdrawal lays the basis for the appearance of the conspiracy of silence which excludes adults from supervision and control of youth activities. Although all these factors are clues(pointing to the existence of a relatively distinctive social world of) youth, the social structure of youth culture must be presented and analyzed before the factual existence of a youth culture can be demonstrated. This social structure seems to consist of a series of informal socializing institutions, initiated and perpectuated by youth, which form a dominant part of the process of socialization of American youth. Due to the fact that the behavior pattern of young people has periodic and temporary characteristic trend. The continuous observation and in-depth research face many problems. Assuming that there is a unigue culture of young people according to their environment, this research could be a contribution to general research of this youth culture. Based on the fact that 1990 is a transitional point of the decade, this study would be a very meaningful task. The study of youth culture would be very important for the future of a country. Therefore, more study on this topic must be done in the future. Youth Culture is a passing fad, here today, gone tomorrow.

        • 율동 조용각 박사의 교육사상

          공석영(Kong, Seok-Young) 동덕여자대학교 인문과학연구소 2002 人文科學硏究 Vol.8 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Dr. Cho Yong-gak, Yul Dong, was born in Seoul on June 15, 1923, in a literary family that was famed for their integrity and the noble-mindedness. He took office as the chairman of the board of trustees in Dong Duk Women's University on December 17, 1976. During his term of office for 23 years, he had been working devotedly for the development of this university before he deceased when he was 77 years old. After Dr. Choonkang died, who was a forerunner of Korean women's education and private school, Dr. Cho had carried on the work left unfinished by Choonkang's. He took up a chairman, Board of trustees of Dongduk Women's university in 1976, and he had tried development of school. First of all, he newly built various educational buildings for expanding educational facilities of Dongduk's. These are his important achievements to completing educational facilities; Art Center, Graduate School building, Guidance of Life center, Dongin-gwan, Induk-gwan, library of Women's Studies, Women's Studies Center, museum of Women's Studies and so on. The chief director Yul-dong Cho, Yong-gak had his long-cherished desires fulfilled. He produced brilliant achievements like these; Securing the vast location for school with combining an educational foundation Nam-sung Institute which is located in Dae-jeon, Chung-nam, Establishing a commercial course in Dong-duk Women's High School, Setting up a kindergarten attached to Dong-duk Women's University in order to realize early education, The foundation of women's social educational facilities for vocational education, Organizing an electronic accounts division, Bringing Sul-ak Training Center and Dong-duk Building to completion, The completion of Che-ju Island In-service Training Institute, Purchasing Il-yang Medicines ground in Yeol-gok dong, And buying school ground in Sang-yeol-gok dong. Meanwhile, Dr. Cho established the Memorial enterprise association for Dr. Choon Kang, Cho Dong-Shik after Choon Kang passed away on December 25th, 1969. He published 'Essays in celebration' on December 20th, 1987 to commemorate his hundredth birthday and held the first 'Choon Kang award ceremony' on December 23th. Dr. Cho successively filled various posts such as an executive director and encouragement's commissioner of learning in the Korea University's alumni association. He established the Association of Korean private universities' foundation and became the first chairman. Also, he was an honorary chairman in the Association of Korean universities' corporation. Dr. Cho established sisterhood with many foreign universities in America, Russia, China, Philippines, Mongolia, etc. He was awarded an educational merits prize from the association of Taiwanese private foundation in 1978, and Song-hak-jang and Bong-hwang-jang from the Association of Korean private foundation in 1980 and 1982. He was also awarded the national decoration, Dong-bak-jang, especially, Mo-ran-jang on October, 19th from government in 1982. We should consider that Dr. Cho made Dongduk a notable Women's education school and succeed to his faith. The Spirit of Foundation of the University are as follows : In 1908, having realized the importance of educating women to achieve the self-reliance of our country, the late Dr. Cho Dong-Shik, also known as Choon-Kang, founded Dongwon Girls' School (Eui-sook). Established to educate women leaders for the nation and this society, Dongduk Women's University can be simplified into three mottos. Morality To bring up a person to live an honest and responsible life and love to the nation and the people, taking pride in whatever he or she does. Truth To bring up a person to be qualified as a leader to help the cultural improvement of Korea and of the world through the accumulation of knowledge and the study of academic truth.

        • KCI등재
        • 직업 및 진로 상담에 관한 연구

          공석영(Kong Seok Young),권순달(Kwon Soon Dal) 동덕여자대학교 인문과학연구소 2002 人文科學硏究 Vol.8 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Career counseling, which make a student apply theory and practice of career education in the real life, is practical activity. Also, it is a systematic and expert activity to help a student whose moral maturity and process of career advancement. And " counseling " is common, like matrimonial counseling, legal counseling, real estate counseling, scholarship counseling. So we feel that we live ages of counseling. But counseling as professional, ordinary terms is usual aspect to advise or to question. Thus subdividing a definition of career counseling is as follows. Career may be given several interpretations like a life, personal experiences and a vocation. But generally speaking, it is recognized as the one's future and prospect on time to come and so on. Career counseling is an inclusive term which means the development of a lifelong vocation and that process. Career counseling with career education for a basis is of importance to apply the points of issue which occur from vocation choice in the results of the standard test and make a interview have correct course. Moreover, career counseling must be emphasized not only the side on self-realization, but also the side on utility of manpower based on using the right man in the right place. In our country, introduction of an idea of care education is in the late 1970s. But a chance of real education activity is the beginning of 1990s as a principal matter of concern in the korea educational circles. The purpose of this study is that, first, to study theory about our country care education, second is to find development-way. So the contents of a study is about general idea and purpose of care education, the central contents, step adaptation, systematic aspect , school educational aspect, social aspect, and so on. Recently, because education must be a dimension of whole life education, study, instruct, a study on the vocation and care counseling is important.

        • 인성교육에 관한 연구

          공석영(Kong Seok Young) 동덕여자대학교 인문과학연구소 1999 人文科學硏究 Vol.6 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          This study is a research on the personality education. The subjects of this study are the concept of personality, practice programs·obstruct elements·new dimensions·practice examples of personality education, etc. The driving process of this study is mainly examined by theoretical research through literature, treatise, writing related to personality and practice examples. The discovered matter of this study is that personality is the character of mankind. The basic effort to make a humane man starts in home education. But its development and maturity can be found in school and society. The task of the right personality education and healthy human training is connected directly to country development. So the importance of this study is emphasized because the motive power of the country development is in education.

        • 市民敎育의 發展方案에 관한 硏究

          孔錫英 同德女子大學校 1987 同大論叢 Vol.17 No.1

          The Citizenship Education is known as a motive power that promotes modernization for creating an developed country. Therefore, the purpose of this researches: 1. Through the analysis of related researches on the citizenship education 2. Recognize the present question of the citizenship education 3. Find out the method of the improvement for the citizenship education The contents of the citizenship education: 1. The historical consideration of the citizenship education 2. Relationship between the citizenship and the social education 3. The present question of the citizenship education 4. Study for the method of development for the citizenship education The method of this researches has been studied, analyzed, examined on the base of theoretical study with data and researches for the records in relation to the citizenship education in the center. The Citizenship Education is the one that developes the quality of citizenship which must be equipped by a citizen of the healthy community and even the nation or the world. It has been regularly adapted not only by school but also in the direct way of social and national education for the community or a nation. The task of the citizenship education is to medernize the national consciousness that is the reform of the national spirit, and to construct the highly developed economic country and even to promote the position of Korea in the international world. According to above, the purpose of the citizenship education are national spirit, technique, culture, the unity of peace, security and new community spirit education. The possibilities of the citizenship education: 1. In point of biology, human being is a man of possibility so he can be trained by practice and repetition. 2. In point of a member of society, the life in the social net forms dynamics relationship among people. 3. In point of character, human being, a man of character, would like to be approved as a man of personality. Therefore, after considering the object of education, education which considers their levels, background, academic background and requirement of men and women must be adapted. The citizenship education must give a chance to a nation in order to achieve self-development and self-realization. In the future, the democratic citizenship education must be performed through the social education course to keep the independence and the self-dependence without being moulded by any influence of the changes of the international situation. The present question of the citizenship education: The voluntariness of a nation. The circumstance and equipment of the education organ. The invitation for instructors as the education course. The security of superior teaching team. The choice of the trainee. The propriety of the object of education. Cooperation with related organization. The plan for activity of the citizenship education: The expansion on of the citizenship education. The improvement of the contents methods of education. The enlargement of the chance of education and the improvement of quality for teaching team. The political consideration for the citizenship education promotion system. The maintenance of cooperation relationship between officials and civilian.

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