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A semi-narrow and adaxially rolled leaf mutant, rl15(t), was induced from Korean japonica rice cultivar Ilpum by chemical mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulfonate. We characterized the mutant and identified the novel gene causing the mutant phenotype. Cytological analysis of mutant leaves indicated that the adaxial leafrolling phenotype is due to the reduced size and number of bulliform cells in the mutant. Genetic analysis showed that the rolled leaf trait is controlled by a single recessive gene, designated rl15(t). Using an F2 mapping population generated from a cross between Milyang23 and the mutant, we mapped the candidate region to a 174 kb interval on the long arm of chromosome 1 near the centromeric region. Through whole genome sequencing in bulk and MutMap analysis, we identified the causal SNP within the candidate region. The results of RT-PCR analysis indicated that a splicing error occurred due to a base change from G to A at the beginning of the fifth intron of LOC_Os01g37837, which encodes a putative seryl-tRNA synthetase, resulting in the mutant phenotype. Further study of the rl15(t) gene will facilitate analysis of leaf architecture and morphogenesis in rice plants.
벼 에서 유색미의 이용성을 검토하고자 갈색, 적색, 자색, 흑색 등의 현미색을 가진 품종들에서 몇가지 색소관련 특성 및 영양특성을 조사한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 유색미의 색소는 종피~과피에 침적되어 있었으며, bulk로 정백시에는 백미에도 그 일부가 잔존하였다. 2. 유색미의 현미 1 g당anthocyanin함량은 갈색 및 적갈색미 1.63~17.62 ug, 적색미 3.56~11.10 ug, 자색미 28.11~401.22 ug, 흑색미 665.98 ug 이 었다. 3. 분석된 유색미 중 DZ 78에서 단백질함량이 가장 높았다. 아미노산 조성에서는 보통미와 유색미간, 배아를 제거한 현미와 백미간에 특별한 경향이 없이 대체로 비슷하였다. 4. 유색미의 vitamin 함량을 화청벼와 비교하여 볼 때 B1 는 L K1 B-4-12-1-1과 DK 1에서 다소 증가했다. B2 는 L K1 B-2-1-1과 L K1 B-4-12-1-1의 배아를 제거한 현미에서 월등히 증가하였다. 5. 조사된 양이온 K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F e2+의 함량은 대부분 유색미에서 유의하게 증가하여 색소침적과 관련이 있는 것으로 나타났다. Colored rices have been used for specific purposes by rice consumers due to the color and nutritive values empirically recognized. In this study, varietal variations of pigmentation and nutritive values were investigated in brown, red, purple and black rices. Pigments were localized in seed coat to pericarp region in all varieties tested. Pigments were slightly residued on the surface of milled rice. Anthocyanin content per g brown rice was 1.63~17.62 ~mu~textrmg in brown and reddish-brown rices, 3.56~11.10 ~mu~textrmg in red rices, 28.11~401.22 ~mu~textrmg in purple rices, and 3, 665.98 ~mu~textrmg in a black rice. A vatiety DZ 78 showed the highest protein content out of colored rices analyzed for protein. Normal and colored rices were found to have the similiar composition of amino acids, and so was in between brown rice without embryo and milled rice. Colored rices, L K1 B-4-12-1-1 and DK 1, showed higher content of vitamin B1 compared with Hwacheongbyeo, a check variety of no specific color, and L K1 B-2-1-1 and L K1 B-4-12-1-1 showed much higher content of vitamin B2 in brown rice without embryo. Cation contents such as K+ , Mg2+ , Ca2+ and F e2+ were significantly increased in most of the colored rices tested implying that the increase might be associated with color pigmentation.ation.
Crop variety having high nutrient-use efficiency is a prerequisite to meet the need of environment-friendly crop cultivation. A few studies on genetics and breeding for physiological nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE; grain yield /absorbed N) in rice initiated recently with the elucidation of varietal differences, which suggested the possibility of high PNUE varieties. A project for breeding high PNUE rice varieties has been carried out in our laboratory, and the results obtained so far are briefly summarized here. Genotypic variations in PNUE under both N-fertilized (100kg/ha) and unfertilized conditions were significantly high using varieties of various origin and plant architecture, and PNUE was much higher in improved HYV than in land varieties. Path analysis revealed that harvest index was a major character contributing to PNUE. PNUE was lowered by the heavy application of N fertilizer. The variances of general combining ability for yield-related characters were higher than the variances of specific combining ability in both N-fertilized and unfertilized conditions, indicating that additive effects were more important than dominance effects. Dasanbyeo and Guichow out of parents were the best combiners for biomass production, yield, and crop growth rate in F1. Genetic similarities among parents were estimated to be useful in predicting the yield heterosis in F1 under N-fertilized condition. The genetic segregations of dry-matter and PNUE in F2 were continuous. Heritabilities for yield-related characters varied along characters and populations. Heritabilities for yield were increased with generation advance and were much higher in N-unfertilized condition than in N-fertilized condition. Genetic gain after selection for yield was significantly higher in N-unfertilized condition than in N-fertilized condition. However, the selection response for yield was negligible in case that the plants were grown in N-unfertilized condition after selection in N-fertilized condition and vice versa. Selection for PNUE in early generations was effective in both N-fertilized and -unfertilized conditions, implying that high PNUE lines could be bred by selection after hybridization. Promising lines having both high yield and high PNUE were selected in F3 and F4. The selection with generation advance for the lines is in progress for genetic fixation.
An 'obligate cleistogamy' mutant newly found in rice was studied for inheritance and agronomic characters. Spikelets of the cleistogamous line didn't show the anthesis at all during pollination and fertilization. The cleistogamy was caused by the lack of lodicules, which was not occurred inherently or aborted in the early stage of floral development. The cleistogamy was stablely expressed under different environments with temperatures, day lengths and fertilizers. A single recessive gene was responsible for the lack of lodicules and it was found to be located on chromosome 8 of rice molecular map. The gene for lodiculelessness was tentatively designated as ld(t). Cleistogamy character didn't affect other agronomic characters such as panicle length, number of panicles, days to heading and grain fertility except culm length which was taller in cleistogamous plants. This mutant is expected to be useful in rice breeding to ensure the varietal purity and to prevent from infection of pathogens through opened florets and from several environmental stresses.
The subspecies-specific RAPD markers using 30 varieties(15 japonica, 15 indica) of various origin could be detected. Of the 526 random primers tested, 54 subspecies-specific DNA bands were identified. Although RAPDs were less polymorphic than URP(random eicosamer primer) bands, the proportion of subspecies-specific markers by RAPD was higher than those by by URP. 54 subspecies-specific markers consisted of 25 japonica-specific markers and 29 indica-specific markers. Rice varieties were classified into two discrete subspecies by subspecies-specific markers. The SPV(subspecies prototype variety) concept was introduced representing the typical varieties to each subspecies. 10 JPVs(japonica prototype species) and 4 IPVs(indica prototype species) were selected. The breeding lines from cross between Dasanbyeo(indica) and TR22183(japonica) was analyzed by selected subspecies-specific markers. All the lines turned out to be genetically closer to indica parent. Dasanbyeo.