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Objective: Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) whose sputum smear is positive after 5 months of standard treatment are considered treatment failure according to the WHO guidelines. This study determined the clinical significance of sputum smear positivity after 5 months of standard anti-TB treatment. Methods: The study was a retrospective review of the medical records of 1,611 patients with culture-proven drug susceptible PTB from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-two patients (2.6%) were smear-positive after 5 months of treatment and 126 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated. Results: Among the 42 smear-positive patients after 5 months of treatment, sputum culture yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 2 patients (4.8%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 2 (4.8%), and no growth in the remaining 38 patients (90.5%). Treatment was successfully completed with prolongation of standard regimens without change to second-line TB medication in 41 patients (97.6%). Paradoxical response (19% vs. 3%, p = 0.001) and culture positivity for NTM during TB medication (31% vs. 7%, p <0.001) occurred more frequently, and treatment duration (273 days vs. 184 days, p = 0.001) was longer, in patients with smear positivity after 5 months of treatment compared with controls. Conclusion: Sputum smear positivity after 5 months of treatment may be due mainly to nonviable bacilli and NTM. Therefore, careful review of bacteriologic status is needed before a retreatment regimen or empirical multidrug-resistant regimen is used.
Generally, a high voltage superconducting apparatus should be designed considering the lightning impulse breakdown characteristics, which is more severe than the AC breakdown characteristics. In this study, the electrical breakdown characteristics with respect to the field utilization factor is investigated experimentally for the establishment of insulation design criteria of an GN2 insulated high voltage electric power apparatus. Experimental results with sphere-to-plane electrode systems show that the electrical breakdown characteristics under lightning impulse voltage is potentially affected by the field utilization factor, the size of electrodes, and the gap distance of the electrode systems. From these results, the electrical insulation design criteria to estimate the electrical breakdown voltage in GN2 with similar size electrodes could be established.
Artificial intelligence(AI) can create great value in both intra-day and long-term investments. In intra-day investment, complex information needs to be processed quickly. Here AI easily dominates humans. In mid- to long-term investments, individual investors generally make behavioral biases. AI can diagnose and overcome behavioral errors by rule-based decision making. In addition, it can contribute to mid- to long-term investment by continuously updating academic research and the latest financial products. However, most AI-based funds, such as RoboAdvisors, use daily data to focus on tactical asset management. This is one of the most abused areas of AI. AI-based short-term investments need a deep understanding of financial and financial theory, such as market abnormalities and multi-factor models. AI can create most value in risk management. In particular, AI can assist forward-looking risk management using alternative big data. It is highly desirable that some asset managers make this attempt. However, most domestic financial institutions do not fully utilize the advantages of AI in investment decision-making. 인공지능을 통해 금융투자 경쟁력을 높일 수 있다. 복잡한 정보를 신속하게 처리해야하는 초단기투자에서 인간은 인공지능의 상대가 되지 않는다. 학술적인 성과와최신 금융상품 출시 정보 등을 지속적으로 업데이트하면 중장기투자에도 공헌할 수있다. 중장기투자에서 다수의 개인투자자들은 행동경제학적 오류를 범하지만, 인공지능은 규칙에 근거한 의사결정으로 행동경제학적 오류를 진단/극복할 수 있기 때문이다. 위험관리 측면에서도 마찬가지이다. 비정형빅데이터를 이용한 선행적인 위험관리를 통해 금융투자 가치를 창출할 수 있다. 그러나 국내 금융기관들를 살펴보면 로보어드바이저 등 대부분 전술적자산운용 또는 단기투자에 한정되어 있다. 이러한 분야는 인공지능이 가장 남용되는 분야 중 하나다. 시장이상현상, 멀티팩터 모형 등 재무금융이론에 대한 깊은 이해가 없는 인공지능 기반 투자는 성공을 거두기어렵다. 전반적으로 국내 금융기관들이 투자의사결정과정에서 인공지능의 장점을충분히 활용하고 있지 못하다고 판단된다.
We investigated the mass occurrence of the salp Salpa fusiformis during spring in the southern waters of Korea and the northern East China Sea. Abundance of S. fusiformis and dominant taxonomic groups including copepods, ostracods, euphausiids, and appendicularian was examined along with environmental factors (e.g., temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll-a concentration). The abundance of S. fusiformis at 27 stations ranged from 0 to 183 inds m-3. Both aggregate and solitary forms of S. fusiformis occurred with a mean abundance of 62 inds m-3 and 4 inds m-3, and mean body length of 6.5 mm and 15.4 mm, respectively. Redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of S. fusiformis was negatively correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration, indicating the intensive grazing impact of S. fusiformis on phytoplankton. While the abundance of S. fusiformis increased, the species diversity of zooplankton community decreased. The abundances of total copepods and the dominant copepod species (e.g., adults and/or copepodites of Paracalansus parvus s.l., Calanus sinicus, Oithona similis, and Corycaeus affinis) also decreased with the increase of S. fusiformis abundance. However, the abundance of ostracods, euphausiids, and appendicularians was not affected by the mass occurrence of the salps. These results suggest that the mass occurrence of S. fusiformis in spring could negatively affect ecosystem conditions by changing trophodynamics in the zooplankton community.
본 연구에서는 상호지향성 모델을 적용하여 한국의 국가 이미지와 문화상품 이미지에 대한 인식이 한국과 중국 대학생들 사이에서 어떠한 형태로 차이가 있는지에 대하여 알아보고자 하였다. 대학생 200명을 대상으로 객관적 일치도, 주관적 일치도, 그리고 정확도를 유목으로 설문조사를 한 결과, 한국 대학생들은 한국의 국가 이미지에서 기술력을 가장 높이 평가하고 있는 반면, 중국 대학생들은 한국의 외교를 가장 높이 평가하고 있었다. 문화상품 이미지에 대해서는 한국 대학생들은 드라마, 중국 대학생들은 관광을 가장 높게 평가하고 있었다. 또한 중국 대학생들은 한국의 영화산업을 상대적으로 낮게 평가하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구결과를 바탕으로 한국의 국가 이미 지 개선과 문화상품 개발에 실질적 함의가 무엇인지 또한 토론하였다. Applying the coorientation model, this study examines differences in perceptions of images and cultural products of Korea among Korean and Chinese college students. The results indicate that technological dimensions of Korean images and dramas of cultural products were highly recognized among Korean students, while diplomatic skills and tourism were salient images of Korea among Chinese students. Implications from the results of this study also were discussed in more details.
Animal bites are a common problem managed by primary physicians and often involve wound infection, neurovascular injury, poor cosmetic outcome, and high medical costs. During clinical assessment, a thorough medical history is acquired, including details of the bite circumstances and the patient's immune status and vaccination history. A meticulous physical examination should be performed in order to identify any injuries to deep structures, in addition to exploring the wound by creating a narrow opening and using diagnostic tools such as radiograph and ultrasound where necessary. Infection is the most problematic complication after a bite injury. Cleaning, irrigation, and debridement are the most important steps in preventing infection. The use of prophylactic antibiotics is controversial, but probably indicated in immunocompromised individuals and in anatomical areas that are more likely to be infected, such as the hand and foot. The decision to close a bite wound must be based on consideration of the benefit of a good cosmetic outcome and the increased risk of infection. In Korea, human rabies has not occurred since 2005, but the transmission of rabies is still a concern with animal bites. The transmission of viral hepatitis, herpes virus and human immunodeficiency virus can occur following human bites. To prevent the transmission of various viruses, healthcare providers should know the guidelines for post-bite exposure prophylaxis.