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나고르노 카라바흐 분쟁은 아르메니아인이 거주하는 나고르노 카라바흐 영토를 두고 아제르바이잔, 아르메니아 간에 발생한 분쟁으로서 남카프카스 지역의 안전을 위협하는 가장 심각한 분쟁이다. 1992-94년에 1차 나고르노카라바흐 전쟁이 발발한 이후 분쟁을 평화적으로 해결하기 위해 OSCE 민스크 그룹 차원의 국제적 중재 노력이 기울여졌다. 그러나 그동안 수많은 분쟁 해결안이 제시되었으나 평화협상은 타결되지 않았고, 결국 2020년 2차 나고르노 카라바흐 전쟁이 발발한 상태이다. 본 논문에서는 1994년 휴전 이후 나고르노 카라바흐 분쟁을 평화적으로 해결하기 위해 OSCE 민스크 그룹 차원의, 그리고 러시아의 단독적인 노력으로 다양한 중재안이 제시되었음에도 불구하고 왜 이러한 외교적 노력이 평화를 가져올 수 없었는지를 살펴본다. 또한 분쟁 당사국이 평화적 분쟁 해결 방안에서 군사적 해결 방안으로 전환하게 되는 동인을 밝히고자 한다. 본 논문에서는 아제르바이잔, 아르메니아 간의 힘의 균형이 2016년을 기점으로 변화하였다고 보고, 이러한 변화가 나고르노 카라바흐 분쟁 해결 과정에 가져온 영향을 분석한다. The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is an ethnic and territorial conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh, which seriously threatens the security of the South Caucasus region. The conflict originally occurred in the former Soviet Union and culminated at the first Nagorno Karabakh War in 1992-1994. The conflict became “frozen” after the signing of the truce treaty in 1994, but it eventually led to the second Nagorno Karabakh War in 2020. This paper examines the reasons why the conflict could not be resolved peacefully, despite international mediation efforts by OSCE Minsk Group, in particular by Russia. Assuming that a shift in the political and military balance of power between the conflicting parties took place after the 4-day war in April 2016, this paper analyzes what caused the shift and what its implications were. In conclusion, the study shows that the breakout of the second Nagorno Karabakh War in 2020 was unavoidable due to the fact that Azerbaijan sought to change the status quo through use of military measures.
This paper examines a case study of South Korean educational migrants who have moved to Singapore for their children`s precollege education. It discusses how these migrants redefine and reconstitute the ideas and values of language resources and competencies as mediated by their multiple and situational language ideologies. In particular, this study illustrates how these Korean educational migrants in Singapore view Mandarin, English and Singlish as having multiple values according to different situational contexts. Chinese or English does not exist as an "abstract" language. Rather these language resources are cultural products, of which meanings and values are constantly negotiated and constituted through Korean migrants` lived experiences of specific transnational contexts. The Korean educational migrants, on the other hand, redefine and reconstitute language competencies that they aspire to acquire through their Singapore experiences. Based on the spatio-temporal specificity of their migration to Singapore, the Korean migrants tend to reconfigure their desired language competence as being potential and timely and spatially limited. At the same time, as a type of sptaio-temporally specific competence, the Korean migrants emphasize emotional capital, including a sense of self-discipline and regulations as well as self-confidence as significant personal dispositions required to go further to a "larger society." Therefore, this study demonstrates how the meanings and values of language resources and competencies are constantly reconstructed and negotiated through educational migrants` shifting language ideologies, as embedded in specific spatio-temporal trajectories of the educational migrants.
Zero-Out Contributions (ZOCs; impact) of air pollutants emitted from the thirteen major source sectors in South Korea on PM2.5 were estimated with a set of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality - Brute Force Method simulations in which emissions of each source sectors were totally removed in turn during the study period of 2019. During the emission sensitivity simulations, the Clean Air Policy Support System 2016 emission inventory was processed at a horizontal grid resolution of 9 ㎞. Among 13 source sectors, agriculture showed a high impact (5.0 ㎍/㎥) on the nation-wide PM2.5 concentration, but NH₄<SUP>+</SUP>converted from the agricultural NH₃ emissions explained only 25% of the total impact. It means that about 75% of agricultural impact is mainly attributed to SO₄<SUP>2-</SUP> and NO₃<SUP>-</SUP> converted from their precursors released from other source sectors. Except agriculture, on-road mobile showed the highest nation-wide PM2.5 impact of 1.4 ㎍/㎥ (8.0%) followed by industrial combustion (1.3 ㎍/㎥; 7.6%), and non-road mobile (0.9 ㎍/㎥; 5.3%). However, industrial combustion was the highest contributor in Chungnam (impact 3.0 ㎍/㎥) while non-road mobile, on-road mobile, and manufacturing process was the predominant contributor for Busan (2.0 ㎍/㎥), Daegu (2.1 ㎍/㎥), and Ulsan (2.3 ㎍/㎥), respectively. When the total impacts of precursor emissions on the nation-wide PM2.5 were compared, NOx(2.4 ㎍/㎥) showed the highest impacts on the PM2.5 followed by Primary PM2.5(PPM2.5; 1.9 ㎍/㎥), NH₃(1.5 ㎍/㎥), and SO₂(0.6 ㎍/㎥). However, PPM2.5 became the dominant precursor that showed the highest impact (4.6 ㎍/㎥) to the PM2.5 in Seoul. The national emission-to-concentration conversion rate of PPM2.5 was approximately 5 and 10 times higher than that of NOx(to NO₃<SUP>-</SUP>) and SO₂(to SO₄<SUP>2-</SUP>), respectively. However, the emission sectoral impacts and the emission-to-concentration conversion rates changed a few times among provinces. Overall, when developing provincial air quality improvement plans, it is strongly recommended to figure out their own key source sectors and the target precursors to regulate.
This study explores the issues of language and communication in a multinational corporation by analyzing a case of a Korean company called Melody located in Java, Indonesia. More specifically, this paper discusses (1) Korean staff``s strategies to facilitate their communication with Indonesian workers in the workplace, and (2) the patterns and values of communication in Melody``s inter-cultural communication with the local. Based on my ethnographic field research in Melody in 2013, this paper demonstrates how Korean staff members utilize various strategies to complement their limited linguistic competence in Indonesian. It discusses how the Koreans evaluate and justify their ways of communication in the workplace as being more ``practical`` and ``efficient,`` the communication style that is believed to contribute to high productivity of the corporation. In the mean time, Indonesian workers value more on relational communication than the Korean staff``s tendency of ``vertical`` top-down communication of work directions and confirmation. On the other hand, the inter-cultural communication between Melody and the local residents is often carried out through the company``s various CSR (corporate social responsibility) programs. The values of communication emphasized in such inter-cultural communication and CSR discourses are ``education`` and ``religion,`` emphasizing the values of ``culture,`` not those of practical and economic benefits. These competing values and attitudes toward language and communication, in turn, demonstrate the ways in which different ways of interactions are forced to operate according to various contexts in the multinational corporation. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of communicative competence, the knowledge of social appropriateness in using a specific style of language and communication as a crucial way of localization and adaptation in a transnational workplace.
The seasonal variations of sea surface winds and significant wave heights were investigated using the data observed from the marine meteorological buoys (nine stations) and Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) in lighthouse (nine stations) around the Korean Peninsula during 2010~2012. In summer, the prevailing sea surface winds over the East/West Sea and the South Sea were northerly/southerly and easterly/westerly winds due to both of southeast monsoon and the shape of Korean Peninsula. On the other hand, the strong northerly winds has been observed at most stations near Korean marginal seas under northwest monsoon in winter. However, the sea surface winds at some stations (e.g. Galmaeyeo, Haesuseo in the West Sea) have different characteristics due to topographic effects such as island or coastal line. The significant wave heights are the highest in winter and the lowest in summer at most stations. In case of some lighthouse AWSs surrounded by islands (e.g. Haesuseo, Seosudo) or close to coast (e.g. Gangan, Jigwido), very low significant wave heights (below 0.5 m) with low correlations between sea surface wind speeds and significant wave heights were observed.
The impact of urbanization on local meteorology (e.g., surface temperature, PBL height, wind speed, etc.) in the Greater Seoul Area (GSA) was quantitatively evaluated based on a numerical modeling approach during a 1-month period of 2001 (9 Sep. through 8 Oct. 2001). The analysis was carried out by two sets of simulation scenarios: (1) with the global land use and topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1990s (i.e., LU-USGS case) and (2) with the land use data from the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) along with the 3 sec elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in 2000s (i.e., LU-EGIS case). The extension of urban areas in the GSA (especially, the southern parts of Seoul) accounted for 1.8% in the LU-USGS case and 6.2% in the LU-EGIS case. For the simulations, the surface temperature and PBL height due to urbanization in the LU-EGIS case was higher (the differences of up to 0.1 ℃ and 36 m, respectively) than those in the LU-USGS case, whereas the wind speed (up to 0.3 ms -1 ) in the former was lower than that in the latter at 1500 LST. The increase in surface temperature due to urbanization in the GSA (especially, the southern parts of Seoul) was led to the strong convergence of air masses, causing the early sea breeze and its rapid propagation to inland locations. In addition, the vertical mixing motion in the extended urban areas for the LU-EGIS case was predicted to be stronger than that for the LU-USGS case and vice versa for the original urban areas.
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This paper explores the relations between language and the senses, by analyzing how people conceptualize and verbalize their sensory experiences of coffee flavors in the contemporary South Korean society. It first examines various linguistic descriptors for coffee flavors in the lexical level, of which acquisition is often associated with the speaker's increased capacity to discern and express their sensory experiences of coffee tastes and aromas. It also illustrates the ways in which the sensory perceptions of coffee flavors are expressed across different modalities, as shown in the examples of the synesthetic expressions of visual images of coffee and the spatial constructions of its flavors. Specific qualities of coffee flavors are also identified with some attributes and activities of their consumers, which are often extended to index the consumers' specific social identities. Therefore, this paper demonstrates the crucial roles that language plays in mediating between the individual and subjective dimension of sensory expressions and their social and cultural meanings in various social contexts.
1990년대 국제여성인권운동으로 말미암아 자리잡은 여성인권 개념과 국제규범은 현대 러시아에도 수용되고 있다. 또한 글로벌 여성인권거버넌스의 메커니즘은 오늘날 러시아에서 여성인권 문제가 다루어지는 방식에도 영향을 미치고 있다. 이제 러시아 여성인권 침해 사례는 러시아 국내 문제이기만한 것이 아니라 국제적 관심사이기도 하다. 여성위기센터를 위시한 러시아 여성단체들은 여성의 문제를 인권의 관점에서 바라보는 국제적 규범을 수용하여 러시아 여성인권 문제와 관련된 입법 과정 및 실행 과정에 적극적인 행위자의 역할을 한다. 또한 휴먼라이츠워치나 국제사면위원회와 같은 국제인권 NGO들은 러시아 여성인권 침해 사례를 모니터링하고 있으며 상세한 보고서를 통해 그 현황과 실태를 국제적으로 알리고 이슈화하고 있다. 이들 국제비정부기구들은 러시아 정부에 직접적으로 영향을 미치거나 자국 정부를 통해 간접적으로 압력을 행사할 뿐 아니라, 러시아 국내 인권단체들을 지원함으로써 직간접적으로 영향력을 행사하고 있다. 한편 유엔은 여성차별위원회를 통해 러시아 국가로부터 여성의 지위 및 인권 문제와 관련된 보고를 정기적으로 받으며 러시아 국가의 역할 증대를 촉구하고 있다. 이처럼 러시아의 인권문제를 감시, 관리하는 메커니즘에 비정부기구의 역할, 그리고 국제적 행위자의 영향력이 증대되었다는 것은 이제 러시아도 국제적 인권거버넌스의 메커니즘 속에 들어갔다는 것을 의미한다. 그러나 이 사실이 곧 러시아 여성인권 문제의 갑작스럽고도 현저한 개선을 의미하지는 않았다. 여성단체, 특히 여성위기센터의 관련 문제 제기, 입법과정에서의 영향력 행사 등에도 불구하고 입법 과정이나 정책 결정 과정에서의 변화는 요원한 듯이 보인다. 불행히도, 러시아 국가 및 관료, 사회 전반의 인식이 변화하는 데는 상당한 시간이 요할 것으로 보인다. 그러나 다른 한편, 지역 차원에서 여성위기센터들이 지방 법 집행기관-특히 경찰-과의 부분적인 협조를 이루고 있다는 사실은 향후 이 부분에서의 거버넌스적 접근방식의 발전 가능성을 조심스럽게 점쳐보게 만든다. 비록 지역적 차원에 한정되고 특정 문제로 제한되지만, 여성위기센터의 상대적인 성공은 국가와 시민사회 영역의 협조를 통해 러시아가 당면하고 있는 문제를 해결할 수 있는 가능성을 보여주는 한 사례라 할 수 있다. From the beginning of the 1990s, the women's human rights movement has challenged prevailing concepts of, and reinterpreted the movement for, human rights from a feminist perspective. In particular, a perspective that regards any violence against women as a serious violation of human rights has been aggressively promoted. As a result, the international human rights community has begun to recognize gender-based violations as a pervasive and insidious manifestation of human rights abuse. This paper explores the process by which global governance for women's human rights is actually working at a local level. Russia was selected as a case study subject; many women in Russia are currently subjected to a litany of human rights violations in their daily lives, including violent crimes such as battery and murder, sexual crimes such as harassment and rape, and trafficking in women for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Analysis reveals that Russian women's NGOs, and particularly women's crisis centers, have played a central role in adopting a global standard regarding domestic violence and trafficking in women, and in making an issue of them within the Russian society. They are not only helping victims and providing them with all the necessary advice and facilities, but are also attempting to exert a positive impact on the decision-making process at the governmental level. In so doing, they are pursuing a strategy to cooperate closely with the international human rights NGOs, as well as with the international women's movement. In addition, the relative success of women's crisis centers in working together effectively with the law enforcement branches of local governments shows that some possibility exists that governance will emerge at the local level in Russia.