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In ordo to investigate the professional job perception and job satisfaction of interns and residents and its related factors, the author conducted survey using self administered questionnaire for 2 months(August and September, 1996). The study subjects were 562 interns and residents who worked at one university hospital(tertiary hospital) and two general hospitals(secondary hospital) in Taegu, Korea. Among them, 297 (52.8%) responded completely. The results were as follows ; Respondents thought that people component was most important, science and status components were next among professional value scales which meant the desirable attitudes required to conduct professional works. But, the score of professional value scales was generally high and not affected by other variables in multiple linear regression analysis. They seemed to have very normative and ideal perceptions about professional values. The score of professionalism scales, which were attitudinal and behavioral traits about professional job, of high grade residents was significantly higher than that of interns and lower grade residents. The score of reference to professional organization and autonomy factor were increasing significantly as the grade increased. Working conditions and perception for socioeconomic status of doctors influenced the score of professionalism scale significantly. It seemed that professional socialization was made during the training periods of interns and residents. Most of respondents answered that current socioeconomic status of doctors were middle and high strata but they responded that the socioeconomic status of doctors would fall in the future. They seemed to have a pessimistic thought about doctor's status. Generally the respondents thought that they were satisfied with doctor job and fit to the job, but 51.9% answered that if possible they would get other jobs. It seemed to reflect their critical thinking on doctors' status. Perceptions about socioeconomic status of doctors, professional value and professionalism influenced job satisfaction significantly. The interns and residents had high sense of calling to doctors and thought that doctors were socially important job. Generally they were satisfied with their job. Interns and residents had normative thoughts about the trait which compentent doctors must have. During the training period, they seemed to have attitude and perception as a professional and to make professional socializations.
Objective : This study was conducted in order to investigate predictors of smoking cessation in outpatients. Method : Subjects were 40f adult smoking patients who saw their doctors in the outpatient setting at a university hospital, regardless of their willingness of otherwise in smoking cessation. Physicians delivered a brief, stop smoking prompt to all patients who smoked one or more cigarettes a day. Then they referred to on-site counselors who provided a brief, nurse assisted intervention with a survey to a randomly assigned intervention group (200 smoking patients), whom the counselors telephoned later to prevent relapse or promote the motivation to quit, or gave only a survey to a control group (201 smoking patients). After at least 5 months, self-reported current smoking cessation was confirmed later using cut-off values of 7 ppm or less in expired alveolar air after breath holding portable CO analyzer. Results : After 5 months, subjects in the intervention group were 1.56 times (95% C.I. 0.89-2.73) more likely to quit smoking than those in the non-intervention group (14.0% vs. 9.0%). Willingness to quit smoking in a month, scheduled admission in a month, self efficacy score and FTND (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence) score were all significantly related with smoking cessation. In stepwise multiple logistic regression, previous attempts to quit smoking were significant instead of self efficacy score. In the intervention group who had willingness to quit smoking in a month (132 smoking patients), FTND score, whether quit date was today, and whether quit promise paper was submitting were all significantly related with smoking cessation. In stepwise multiple logistic regression, scheduled admission in a month and whether quit date was today were significant predictor variables, Smoking cessation treatment should be tailored to individual smoking patients considering these predictors.
Objectives: Emotional support and a stress management program should be simultaneously provided to clients as effective preventive services for healthy behavioral change. This study was conducted to review various relaxation and meditation intervention methods and their applicability for a preventive service program. Methods and results: The author of this paper tried to find various relaxation and meditation programs through a literature review and program searching and to introduce them. The 'Relaxation Response' and 'Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)' are the most the widely used meditative programs in mainstream medical systems. Abdominal breathing, Progressive Musclular Relaxation (PMR), Relaxative Imagery, Autogenic Training (AT) and Biofeedback are other well-known techniques for relaxation and stress management. I have developed and implemented some programs using these methods. Relaxation and meditation classes for cancer patients and a meditation based stress coping workshop are examples of this program. Conclusions: Relaxation and meditation seem to be good and effective methods for primary, secondary and tertiary preventive service programs. Program development and standardization and further study are needed for more and wider use of the mindbody approach in the preventive service area of medicine.
This paper proposes an effective k-D tree traversal algorithm for ray tracing on a GPU. The previous k-D tree traverse algorithm based on GPU uses bottom-up searching from a leaf to the root after failing to find the ray intersected primitive in the leaf node. During the bottom-up search the algorithm decides the current node is visited or not from the parent node. In such a way, we need to visit the parent node which was already visited and the duplicated bounding box intersection tests. The new k-D tree traverse algorithm reduces the brother and parent duplicated visit by using an efficient method which decides whether the brother node is already visited or not during the bottom-up search. Also the algorithm take place bounding box intersection tests only for the nodes which is not yet done. As a result our experiment shows the new algorithm is about 30% faster than the previous. 본 논문은 GPU상에서 작동되는 ray tracing을 위한 효과적인 k-D tree 탐색 알고리즘을 제안한다. 기존의 k-D tree를 위한 GPU 기반 탐색 알고리즘은 임의의 단말노드에서 교차되는 primitive를 찾지 못한 경우. root 노드 방향으로 bottom-up 탐색하여 부모 노드에서 bounding box 교차검사를 이용해 형제 노드의 기 방문 여부를 판단한다. 이러한 방법은 이미 방문한 부모 노드의 방문과 bounding box 교차검사를 중복적으로 수행한다. 본 논문에서 제안하는 알고리즘은 bottom-up 탐색을 수행 할 때 형제노드가 이전에 방문했는지를 확인할 수 있는 효율적인 방법을 제시함으로써 형제노드 및 부모로드의 방문을 생략하도록 하고, 또한 아직 방문하지 않은 노드에 대해서만 bounding box 교차검사를 수행함으로써 중복된 연산을 피한다. 결과적으로 본 논문의 실험은 기존 알고리즘 대비 제안하는 알고리즘이 약 30%의 성능 향상이 있음을 보여 준다.
Recently, weight reduction for an automobile component has been sought to achieve fuel efficiency and energy conservation. So many automobile components is producted by engineering plastic. Therefore this parts is important safety evaluation. In this paper, we presents effectiveness of leaking tester for safety evaluation in battery case made by injection molding. In oder to analyze the stress&displacement of this component, we need to conduct structure Finite Element Analysis. Test condition was decided using this work. And leaking tester is tested using test system, tester function was evaluation. Finally, it was conclude decision standard through results of test. Additionally, safety of impossible test condition is evaluated through FE analysis.
This paper present using the CAE to give Structure & Thermal Stress Analysis of a Brake Oil Reserver in Commercial Vehicles for pre-design test of Strength test and Thermal shock test. Brake Oil Reserver is the important component of brake system for vehicle safety. So it need sufficient design investigation according to test standard. CAE(Computed Aied Engineering) is essential to test and evaluate at design phase, because if design exchanged more time and expense will be wasted after production.
본 연구는 투자기업의 지배구조를 개선하여 기업의 건전성과 투명성, 더 나아가 기업의 가치를 제고할 수 있는 국민연금의 주주권 행사에 관한 실천적 방안을 모색한다. 구체적으로 의결권 행사 과정의 투명성 확보를 통한 신뢰구축 및 여론형성 역할 제고(주주질문권의 적극적인 행사), 일임투자 시 의결권 행사 권한의 위임, 독립적 전문기관의 의안분석 보고서 활용 방안, 그리고 독립적인 인력풀을 활용한 이사후보 추천 등의 개선방안을 제시한 후 이를 심층적으로 살펴본다. 본 연구에서 제시된 방안들이 실행될 경우 국민연금이 의결권을 포함한 주주권을 행사하는 과정에서 제기되고 있는 연금사회주의 우려, 과도한 경영권 개입 및 독립성 결여와 관련된 논란을 다소불식시킬 수 있을 것이며, 이를 통해 기금의 수익률 개선에도 기여할 것으로 기대된다. This paper tries to seek the action plans that help the Korean National Pension Service to efficiently exercise its shareholder’s right to enhance the transparency in its decision making and the value of the investing companies. Specifically we suggest and discuss the following four action plans: (i) trust building and formation of favorable public opinion by improving the procedural transparency in the exertion of its voting right (especially by exercising the inquiry right on the important agenda of the general shareholder meeting), (ii) delegation of its voting rights to the asset management companies in case of discretionary investments, (iii) use of proxy reports prepared by independent professional agencies, and (iv) use of independent candidate pool in recommending the outside directors to the investing firms. We expect that these action plans will make the National Pension Service be less concerned about the issues relating to the pension fund socialism, excessive intervention on the investing companies, and lack of its organizational independence, which in turn will improve its financial performance.