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      • 블레이크의 초기시의 나타난 어린아이의 공격의 이미지

        강옥선 東西大學校 1997 동서논문집 Vol.3 No.1

        In Blake's earlier poetry, Songs of Innocence and Experience, a prevalent image is that of children who are suffering at the hands of their parents. Children are usually represented as being lost, treated with cruelty, or being suppressed sexually in the Songs of Innocence and Experience. Blake's poetry is vivid in probing into the image of children which influences every aspect of human relationships. Blake's earlier poetry reveals the childhood aggression by exploring the essences of human nature vividly. There are two interwined topics in Blake" the spiritual disintegration of humanity, and the forces within the family relationships that produce aggression and cruelty. Whether as parent, child, or consort, the conflict of males and females is the dominant interest. In the Songs of Innocence and Experience and, indeed, throughout his work, the remotifs are the psychological tensions of the parent and child relationship. The children's aggression is toward their mothers more than toward their fathers. It can not be forgiven for the children to be rejected by their mother in providing nourishment. Fundamental biological ties with the mother are closer than those with the father, and their loss is therefore a source of more profound bitterness. The notable thing in Blake's earlier poetry is the converted image of children who send their destructive fury back to the parent to punish the parent in the Songs of Innocence and Experience. Therefore, both parents are regarded as a source of pain and are the object of the children's aggression. It is, however the mother who remains as the most prominant tormentor. I believe this is why Blake has his negative view of women in his epics.

      • KCI등재후보

        여성시인의 감수성의 시학 : 앤 이어슬리와 애너 바볼드의 시를 중심으로 Focusing on the Poems of Ann Yearsley and Anna Barbauld

        강옥선 새한영어영문학회 2003 새한영어영문학 Vol.45 No.2

        The poetics of sensibility has been long ignored out of a blind defense of the classical tradition. However, a careful reconsideration is in order. The poetics of sensibility developed new modes of expression through opposing the traditional view of reason, by suggesting that it could no longer serve a truly rational mind. Philosophers, such as David Hume and Adam Smith defined reason as inactive, because it can never be a source of the conscience or moral. However, "sensibility," as a very powerful emotional principle in human nature, has a great influence on our judgment of beauty and morals. Thus, morality and emotion are directly connected with the poetics of sensibility. In the poetics of sensibility, a person's value is defined by neither social position nor even accomplishment, but by their capacity for feeling. The poetry of sensibility is basically a literature of an expression of "spontaneous feeling" of the heart. In the last part of the 18th century, it poured from women's emotional experiences on the margins of culture, especially in the outlying provinces. Ann Yearsley incorporated the language of sensibility into her work though she was doubly disadvantaged in the literary world; she was a woman without formal education. In Yearsley's poems, sensibility takes the form of an endless emotional struggle between herself and her privileged supporters, especially the overzealous support of Hannah More. Anna Barbauld challenges male dominated values with shadowy meaning at its core by showing a portrayal of alienated sensibility through the description of daily details. Barbauld's poetic sensibility is developed intomoral sensibility by conscience and sympathy. In the poetics of sensibility, the aim of art is to affect through sympathy and not by imitation. Women poets are sympathetic to distress and victimization, with a profound emotion of being themselves dispossessed. Women poets' poetics of sensibility is radical in that it favors reform through its emphasis on victims, and questions the established hierarchies of birth and gender. Women poets created poetry in a time limited by the dominion of male values, and in doing so sought an appropriate medium to allow readers to step out of the logical confines of the mind into the feeling sensibilities of the heart.

      • KCI등재

        낭만기 여성 시인들의 작품에 나타난 종교적 급진주의 : 에너 바볼드, 에밀리어 오피, 루시 에이킨의 시를 중심으로 Focusing on Anna Barbauld, Amelia Opie, and Lucy Aiken

        강옥선 한국문학과종교학회 2003 문학과종교 Vol.8 No.1

        Historically, an extensive range of religious radicalism made itself widely available to the people of 1790's London, which gave rise to such intense radical groups as millenarianism. Southcottians. Dissenters, and Quakers. During the early Romantic period, women's political discourse occupies a position of dissent against the political establishment, where women's role is normatively defined solely by silent obedience. Among the conventional modes of literary politics by the dissenters, the only formal avenue open to women poets was the periodical, which welcomed her literary contribution, even though these contributions were easy targets for controversy. The works of women poets have been dismissed as unimportant because of not conforming to the paradigms defined by cononical male poets. Recently, women's poems have been considered to contain religious radicalism based on female prophets' radical tradition. As Anne Mellor suggested that the literary tradition of female poet originated in the writings of the female preachers, Quaker theology in the seventeenth century authorized women prophets to speak in public. To be a woman poet within this movement was to possess equally with men the freedom of conscience valued so highly by the liberal dissenting tradition. This paper attempts to read religious radicalism in English Romantic poetry, focusing on the poems of Anna Barbauld. Amelia Opie, and Lucy Aiken. English Romantic women's poems reveal poetic themes consistent with religious radicalism: of individuality, anti-slavery campaign, freedom from oppression, and women's right. Aikin's Epistles on Women provides a challenge to a set of received ideas about female nature after denouncing Pope's and her society's construction of women as nothing more than "a plaything and a slave"(Aikin 818). Anna Barbauld, as a protestant dissenter, is claiming the feminine moral value to achieve a moral society in a male dominated society. Amelia Opie, a Quaker, is desiring the community without any oppression. "respecting slave's sacred image "(Opie 208). The three women poets are considering the peaceful community with "primary equality" (Aikin 818) and without "the Negro's chain "(Barbauld 114), as ideal society according to the belief of religious radicalism.

      • IT 업체정보검색시스템에서 동의어 처리 기법

        강옥선,이현철,조완섭 한국정보기술응용학회 2001 한국정보기술응용학회학술대회 Vol.2001 No.1

        일반적인 정보 검색은 색인어를 통해 이루어지는데 이런 경우 사용자는 정보를 검색하기 위해 데이터베이스에 저장된 정보들이 가지고 있는 색인어를 정확하게 입력해야 한다. 그러나 일반 사용자가 색인어를 정확하게 입력하기는 어렵고, 특히 찾고자 하는 분야가 전문 분야에서 사용되는 용어일 때는 더욱 그러하다. 이럴 때 시소러스와 같은 지식구조를 이용해서 색인어를 탐색하여 검색의 효율을 높일 수 있다. 최근 들어 정보기술 분야의 연구가 활발함에 따라 정보자로의 생산이 급격히 증가하고 이를 관련 주제 분야의 연구정보로 활용하는 경우가 증가하고 있다. 따라서 IT 분야의 정보를 관리할 수 있는 시스템의 개발이 시급하다. 또한 IT 분야와 같은 전문분야일 때 검색 시스템에서 사용할 용어의 관리에 대한 연구의 필요성이 증가하고 있다. 본 논문에서는 IT분야의 정보를 검색할 수 있는 IT 업체정보검색시스템에서 정보 검색시에 생기는 용어간의 불일치 문제를 해결하고, 각 용어들간의 계층 관계를 나타내어 정보 검색시 검색어의 확장을 도울 수 있는 용어 관리 시스템의 구조를 제안하고 그에 대한 검색 알고리즘을 제시한다. 제안된 구조는 사용자의 검색어에 대한 동의어 관계나 상위어, 하위어 등의 계층 관계를 파악하여 검색의 범위에 추가함으로써 검색 효율을 높일 수 있다. 또한 새로운 용어의 생성이나 삭제와 같은 연산이 발생했을 때 시스템을 동적으로 확장할 수 있도록 구현하였다. 제안된 시스템은 단어간의 계층 구조를 효율적으로 검색하기 위하여 객체-관계형 데이터베이스를 사용하였다. 또한 메모리 상주 DBMS를 사용하여 많은 사용자들이 동시에 접근하는 환경에서도 빠른 검색 성능을 유지할 수 있도록 하였다. 제시된 방법은 정보기술 분야뿐만 아니라 다른 전문용어 분야의 연구로도 그 범위를 확장 할 수 있다.

      • Alfred Tennyson의 시에 나타난 자연 풍경묘사 : 기능과 의미를 중심으로

        姜玉善 東西大學校 1996 동서논문집 Vol.2 No.1

        The aim of this paper is to explore the functions and meanings of the landscape description in Tennyson's poetry. The landscape in Tennyson's poetry is means of embodying poet's emotions and functions as modes for articulating the intellectual themes oftenassociated these emotions. Tennyson often expresses his ideas and emotions not through direct exposition but through the landscape such as concrete objects and stimulations. His landscape description with its variety of contrasting colors and shapes is frequently an ideal storehouse of his artistic material. The way in which Tennyson takes the landscape devices use on a small scale in other poems expands and subtilizes them in In Memoriam clearly points up the development of his artistry. Tennyson transforms landscape into a symbol of poet's mood and mind to express the emotional content of poem. The recurrence of the contrast of the landscape points to the poet's progress and tightens the coherence of In Memoriam. In Memoriam becomes a watershed in Tennyson's description of landscape and strikingly reveals his complicated landscape technique. I think In Memoriam is not the conventional elegy such as "Adonais" and "Lycidas" but the tragic lyrics. Tennyson's contribution to the traditional of nature poetry is entirely stylistic, especially in the achievement of technique by which a series of the landscape description is made to reveal the varieties of poet's emotional experience. Furthermore, Tennyson's landscape recreates poet's deepened state of mind and becomes a statement of his awakened consciousness. I conclude with the function of the landscape In Memoriam itself is designed to reveal a single meaningful end, a general pattern of movement from doubt to life. In this way Tennyson achieves a synthesis of theme and landscape.

      • KCI등재

        “물에 젖은 해안”: 블레이크의 시에 나타난 물의 이미지

        강옥선 한국문학과종교학회 2016 문학과종교 Vol.21 No.2

        블레이크 시학에서 시인의 임무는 타락한 영혼을 깨우치도록 하는 것이다. 『경험의 노래』에 등장하는 시적 화자는 물에 젖은 해안가에 서있으며, 『엘비언 딸 들의 예견』에서는 엘비언의 딸들이 비상하는 우순을 해안가에서 올려다본다. 여기서 물의 이미지는 시인의 고통과 갈등, 주저함과 꿈, 억압과 욕망과 같은 시적 세계를 보여주는 모티브이다. 바슐라르의 상상력에 따르면, “물은 우리에 게 하나의 육체와 혼과 목소리를 가지고 있는 전체적 존재로서 나타난다”고 한 다. 물은 항상 흐르고 아래로 떨어지며, 죽음으로 끝난다. 본 논문에서는 블레이 크의 시에 드러난 물의 이미지를 통하여 시인이 꿈꾸는 새로운 인식의 과정을 탐색해 본다. 블레이크의 시에서 “물에 젖은 해안”과 “이슬 젖은 풀밭,” “차가운 안개,” “물에 사는 풀,” “비밀의 눈물”과 같은 물의 이미지는 억압과 자유, 그리 고 인간존재와 타락한 영혼을 보여주는 시적 현실이다. “물의 물질적 상상력은 위기에 처해있다”는 바슐라르의 지적처럼 물의 이미지는 인물이 처해있는 주저 함과 인식의 한계상황을 잘 보여준다. This study is to interpret the images of water in William Blake’s lyric and prophetic poetry. A concrete approach to the images of water is needed in order to open a door to a wealth of his hidden vision in Blake’s poetry. In Marriage of Heaven and Hell, water is identical to the imagined eye of “the doors of perception” through which everything would appear to man as it is. Albion’s coast, one of the images of water, is sick and silent because their doors of perception are not cleansed. Another image of water is the hope and oppression of Oothoon whose protestant voices redefine femininity by pronouncing her as an independent being in Visions of the Daughters of Albion. Blake’s poetic inspiration of water is an active shaping agent for pursuing freedom from oppression in our life.

      • KCI등재

        Wollstonecraft's Vindication and Revolutionary Enthusiasm: "The Progress of those Glorious Principles"

        강옥선 한국영미어문학회 2007 영미어문학 Vol.- No.85

        Wollstonecraft began writing A Vindication of The Rights of Woman, questioning why women should not have the same rights as men, while criticizing the new constitution of 1791 that excluded women from the political arena and conferred citizenship only on men. She argued that the "glorious principles"(86) that inspired the French Revolution also included the rights of women. The only way for a woman to have rights was through a reasonable and equal education along with the abolishment of the dominant bourgeois gender definition of the female as the subordinate helpmate of the male. For Wollstonecraft, the French Revolution created a political space that allowed women to participate in a public sphere previously unavailable. In A Vindication of The Rights of Woman, she emphasized work rather than inherited wealth and social rank, plotting the middle-class cultural revolution against aristocratic values. By perceiving that the gender inequality of revolutionary France and British society threatened the development of a genuine democracy, Wollstonecraft attempted to initiate her own revolution, what she defined as "a revolution in female manners" (133).Thus, in contrast to a masculine Romantic enthusiasm that affirmed the rights and feelings of the natural man, Wollstonecraft suggested an equally revolutionary enthusiasm grounded on a belief in the rational capacity and equality of woman. Appealing to the Enlightenment rationalists of her day, she grounded her social revolution on a logical argument that the female gender must have both souls and the mental capacity to think correctly.

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