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본 논문은 실증 자료를 이용하여 담배 가격 인상이 계층별로 어떤 영향을 미치는지 보고 자 한다. 이를 위해 1990년부터 2011년 사이의 가계 동향 자료의 담배 소비량에 기초하여 담배 수요의 가격 탄력성을 추정하였다. 추정 결과는 다음과 같았다. 첫째, 담배 수요의 가 격 탄력성은 소득이 낮을 수록 탄력성의 절대값이 낮았다. 둘째, 담배 소비 총량에서 소득 이 낮은 분위의 비율은 지속적으로 증가하는 추세에 있다. 따라서 담뱃세는 역진적 성격을 강하게 드러내며, 소폭의 가격 인상을 통해 담배 소비를 감소시키려는 정책 목적의 달성에 는 한계가 있을 것으로 보인다.
Materials with very small dimensions exhibit different physical and mechanical properties compared to their bulk counterparts. This becomes significantly important for the thin films that are widely used as components in micro-electronics and functional materials. In this study, a chromium (Cr) thin film was deposited on a silicon (Si) wafer by DC-magnetron sputtering. The intrinsic hardness of the Cr thin film on Si-wafer was evaluated by the nanoindentation method. We especially investigated ways of measuring the intrinsic hardness of the Cr thin film, and influential factors including the substrate effect and surface roughness effect. To further characterize the intrinsic hardness of the Cr thin film on Si-wafer, we used Xray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Two additional methods, the Meyer-plot and a profile for hardness versus indentation depth, were also employed. As a result of these two methods, we found that the profile for hardness versus indentation depth was valuable for evaluating the intrinsic hardness of Cr thin film on a Si-wafer substrate. The measured intrinsic hardness of the Cr thin film and Si wafer were about 900 Hv and 1143 Hv, respectively. The profile for hardness versus indentation depth can be widely used to evaluate the intrinsic hardness of metallic thin films on substrates.
Post-cardiac arrest syndrome is a complex and critical issue in resuscitated patients undergone cardiac arrest. Ischemic-reperfusion injury occurs in multiple organs due to the return of spontaneous circulation. Bundle of management practicies are required for post-cardiac arrest care. Early invasive coronary angiography should be considered to identify and treat coronary artery obstructive disease. Vasopressors such as norepinephrine and dobutamine are the first-line treatment for shock. Maintainance of oxyhemoglobin saturation greater than 94% but less than 100% is recommended to avoid fatality. Target temperature therapeutic hypothermia helps to resuscitated patients. Strict temperature control is required and is maintained with the help of cooling devices and monitoring the core temperature. Montorings include electrocardiogram, oxymetry, capnography, and electroencephalography (EEG) along with blood pressue, temprature, and vital signs. Seizure should be treated if EEG shows evidence of seizure or epileptiform activity. Clinical neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging are considered to predict neurological outcome. Glycemic control and metabolic management are favorable for a good neurological outcome. Recovery from acute kidney injury is essential for survival and a good neurological outcome.
The theory on the scattering of electromagnetic waves based on Beckmann's Kirchhoff Approximation was considered the incident light beam as the Gaussian beam in the computer simulation. In this analysis, the roughness in fine scratches was not cosidered because the average roughness was very small compared with the size of scratches. The experiments were followed by the image processing system attached to the CCD camera. The experimental results from the various profiles of scratches were in close agreement with the computer simulations for triangle scratches of the same depth and width especially, in the zero - and first order scattering intensity and scattering angle.
A new experimental technique has been devised to measure in-plane deformations of a disk about loading direction with electronic speckle pattern interferometry(ESPI). We used phase shifting in interferometry fro the quantitative analysis because we were not able to know the direction of deformations of fringes. A structural analysis was presented to provide a description of the method. This description was followed by presentation of the result of finite-element methods(FEM). And excellent agreement between the experiments and the FEM was obtained.