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The apolipoprotein (Apo) C3 and A4 genes, which are members of the ApoA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster, play important roles in lipid metabolism. Despite their importance, studies on the association between these polymorphisms in patients with hypertension are rare. In this study, we examined the associations of ApoC3 (−482C>T rs2854117, −455T>C rs2854116 and 3238G>C rs5128) and ApoA4 1687A>G rs5104 polymorphisms in Korean hypertensive patients. Three hundred and forty patients with hypertension and 515 healthy normotensive subjects were studied. ApoC3 and ApoA4 polymorphisms in the subjects were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The four polymorphisms were not associated with susceptibility to hypertension. However, several haplotypes constructed from four polymorphisms of the ApoC3 and ApoA4 genes were associated with susceptibility to hypertension. With respect to the clinical parameters of hypertension, the −482C>T and −455T>C polymorphisms of the ApoC3 gene were associated with abnormal body mass index (P = 0.024) and triglyceride levels (P = 0.033) in the hypertensive group, respectively. Based on these results, the ApoC3 and ApoA4 polymorphisms might affect synergically susceptibility to hypertension in Koreans.
Background: The referral hospital is somewhat isolated from the mainland due to its island status; thus,microorganisms isolated from blood cultures might have a distinct pattern in their frequency and antibiogram. We attempted to uncover these characteristics. Methods: The isolates from blood cultures at the Cheju University Hospital during 2003∼2007 were analysed. After inoculation in aerobic and anaerobic bottles, blood specimens were cultured using BacT/ Alert system, and the isolates were identifieded and antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using Vitek II system. Results: The overall positive rate of blood cultures was 9.6% and contamination rate was 3.6%. The most commonly isolated pathogens were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Gram positive rod, gram negative cocci, and anaerobes were not isolated, but fungi were isolated in 0.6% of blood cultures. The prevalence of methicillin- resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 68.0% in 2003, 41.4% in 2004, 48.1% in 2005, 54.5% in 2006, and 65.2% in 2007. The prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) was 0% in 2003 and 2004, 16.7% in 2005, 10.0% in 2006, and 9.5% in 2007. Conclusion: The most commonly isolated pathogens were similar to those from other hospitals, but the isolation rates of MRSA and VRE by year showed different patterns. Also, gram positive rods, gram negative cocci and anaerobes were not isolated. To help the choice of empirical antibiotic treatments, we need complementary measures to upgrade microorganism isolation systems and further studies including the monitoring of antibiotic use. 배경: 도서지역 대학병원인 경우 고립된 지리적 환경과 병상규모에 비해 중환자가 많은 특수성으로 인해 혈액배양의분리 균종 및 항균제 내성이 다른 양상을 보일 것으로 예상된다. 이에 일개 도서 대학병원의 5년간 혈액배양 결과를 검토해 보고자 하였다. 방법: 2003년부터 2007년까지 제주대학병원에 내원한 환자에서 혈액배양이 의뢰된 경우 호기성 및 혐기성 배양병에 나누어 접종 후 BacT/Alert system에 배양하였고 Vitek II system을 통해 균종 동정과 항균제 감수성검사를 시행하였다. 결과: 혈액배양 양성률은 9.6%, 오염률은 3.6%였고, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae 순으로 분리되었다. 그람양성 간균, 그람음성 구균, 혐기성 세균은 분리되지 않았고, 진균 분리율은 0.6%였다. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)는 2003년 68.0%, 2004년 41.4%, 2005년 48.1%, 2006년 54.5%, 2007년 65.2%였다. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE)는 2004년까지는 발생하지 않다가 2005년 16.7%, 2006년 10.0%, 2007년 9.5%였다. 결론: 혈액배양에서 가장 흔히 분리되는 균종들은 타병원 예와 같았지만, MRSA나 VRE의 연도별 분리율은 다른 양상을 보였다. 또한, 그람양성 간균, 그람음성 구균, 혐기성 세균은 분리되지 않았다. 경험적 항균요법의 약제 선택에 도움이 되기 위해서는 앞으로 미흡한 균동정 체계를 재정비하고 항균제 사용량 등 지역의 특수성을 감안한 연구가 필요할 것으로 생각된다.
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Purpose - This study reviews the achievements of a pilot project for the revitalization of a commercial district performed for three years after its establishment in 2011. The project for the revitalization of the commercial district was performed to create a new local community space in connection with the traditional market and nearby districts. Although it was a pilot project, the project for the revitalization of the commercial district has been performed for almost three years. Therefore, this seems a proper time to conduct an interim evaluation of the project. This study aims to review and evaluate how the government support policy is influential for the revitalization of the commercial district. In other words, this research aims to identify what projects positively affected consumers’ intention to revisit the downtown commercial area among the commercial district revitalization projects-promotion events, promotion activities, education, merchants cooperation system, IT projects, cultural events, and residents’ communication. Research design, data, and methodology - This study designated seven management improvement projects affecting commercial district revitalization based on preceding studies. The survey of the degree of satisfaction on seven management improvement projects was executed targeting consumers who visited the commercial areas. Additionally, visitors' revisit intentions regarding currently visited commercial areas were also investigated. Therefore, revisit intention was set as a dependent variable and the satisfaction degrees of the respective management improvement projects were set as the independent variables. A total of 1,209 consumers were examined in six districts in the country. Result - Multiple regression analysis results showed that cultural events, education, the merchants’ cooperation system, and IT projects brought statistically significant effects to the revisit intentions of consumers. In contrast, promotion events, resident communication projects, and promotion activities did not affect the revisit intentions of consumers. Particularly, the residents’ communication project did not show significant influence because of consumers' recognition that it is similar to a cultural event. Conclusion - The following implications for the revitalization of business districts in the urban central area are drawn. From a general perspective, the businesses of culture, education, and cooperative system among seven businesses play positive roles regarding the intention to revisit so that the project is required to be promoted periodically through unique performances differentiated for each district, the merchant training reinforced for professionalism, and the expansion of joint events of merchants. Moreover, the sales promotion project and public relations activity are shown to be not influential to the intention to revisit. Therefore, while short-term sales promotion such as one-time gift events are required, sales promotion and public relation activities to induce revisits by mileage savings and accumulated gift presentation to attract long-term customers are required. The IT business is positively influential to the intention of revisit. Therefore, detailed information on the revitalized commercial district should be provided and additional functions such as discount coupons for continuous utilization should be included in the mobile app and the website.
Objective: This study was conducted to elucidate the associations of HLA with systemic sclerosis (SSc) in Koreans. Methods: HLA associations with SSc according to SSc-specific autoantibody status and clinical subsets (diffuse and limited) were investigated. HLA-A, B, and C antigens were typed by the serological method using microlymphocytotoxicity test, and HLA-DR by DNA typing method using PCR-reverse hybridization and PCR-SSCP in 56 Korean patients with SSc and 226 healthy controls. For SSc patients, anti-Scl-70 and anticentromere antibodies were tested by double immunodiffusion and indirect immunofluorescence, respectively. Results: The results of HLA class I antigen typing showed that the frequencies of HLA-A24, B52 and B62 were increased, whereas those of A33, B44 and B58 were decreased in SSc patients compared to healthy controls. The frequency of HLA-DR2 was significantly increased, whereas that of HLA-DR13 was decreased in patients with SSc compared to controls. Among HLA-DR2 alleles, both HLA-DRB1*1501 and *1502 were increased in SSc patients compared to controls. According to clinical status, HLA-DRB1*1501 was increased in limited SSc patients and that of DRB1*1502 was increased both in diffuse and limited SSc patients compared to controls. According to autoantibody status, HLA-DRB1*1502 was significantly increased in anti-Scl-70-positive SSc patients and that of DRB1*1501 was increased in anti-Scl-70-negative SSc patients compared to controls. The association of HLA-DR2 alleles with SSc according to clinical subsets and anti-Scl-70 antibody status revealed that the frequency of HLA-DRB1*1501 was significantly increased in anti-Scl-70-negative limited SSc patients compared to controls. Conclusions: These results suggest that different HLA-DR2 alleles are associated with different types of SSc in Koreans. HLA-DRB1*1502 shows strong association with anti-Scl-70-positive SSc, and DRB1*1501 with anti-Scl-70-negative limited SSc. It is concluded that the pathogenesis of SSc in Koreans is in part, based on the same genetic background.