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Purpose: Several scoring systems and biochemical markers have been proposed for the early prediction of acute pancreatitis. The Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score (HAPS) is a novel scoring system to recognize acute pancreatitis patients with a non-severe clinical course. This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of HAPS to predict good prognosis of acute pancreatitis in the emergency department (ED). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who presented to the ED with acute pancreatitis from January 2010 to December 2011. The parameters constituting HAPS, including physical signs of peritonitis (rebound abdominal tenderness), hematocrit and serum creatinine levels were abstracted. Severe clinical course was defined as having one of the following: mortality while in hospital, necrosis as assessed by contrast CT, need for artificial ventilation or dialysis. The diagnostic performance of HAPS for predicting harmless course was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Results: During the study period, 144 patients with a final diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were included. Among these 144 patients, 79 were predicted to have a non-severe course by HAPS, of whom 4 patients progressed to severe pancreatitis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 61.5%, 81.8%, 94.9% and 27.7%, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that HAPS is simple and can be assessed within a few hours in the ED. HAPS also showed a high positive predictive value that predicts a nonsevere course of acute pancreatitis. Therefore, HAPS may be used as a scoring system to identify non-severe acute pancreatitis in the ED.
The present study was aimed at investigating how much attention pre- service elementary English teachers paid when they were asked to write a class critique after watching a video-taped 6th graders’ English class. 49 pre-service teachers’ critiques were analyzed in an exploratory manner. Their comments were sorted, categorized, and examined to see if there were any outstanding common characteristics in their educational connoisseurship (Eisner, 1983). The results showed that most pre-service teachers had not yet developed their educational connoisseurship enough to be able to critically observe a class from the perspectives of the overall English curriculum and textbook structure. Only a handful of pre-service teachers provide comments on the structure of the class comparing it with that of the textbook. This implied that pre-service teachers need to become more familiar with the English curriculum and the textbook structure during their pre-service training at the universities of education. This study also found that about half of the pre-service teachers were aware of the qualities of language practice in the sample class, which is the most vital part in any language lesson. However, more training at universities of education was also called for regarding this matter. The most common topics to be commented on were techniques of teaching and class management.
최근 주요국과 우리나라의 물가 상승률은 매우 높은 수준을 유지하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 세계경제의 물가 상승을 주도하고 있는 주요 요인이 우리나라 생산자물가에 미치는 영향에 대하여 2010년 이후부터 최근까지의 기간을 대상으로 분석하고 이를 토대로 최근의 우리나라 생산자물가 상승에서 이들 요인이 기여한 정도를 살펴보았다. 주요 요인을 국제 유가, 글로벌 유동성, 국제 원자재 가격, 글로벌 공급망으로 나누어 이들 요인이 국내 생산자물가에 미친 영향을 분석한 후, 요인별 충격을 2021년 12월 전년동기대비 상승률로 적용하였을 때 각각의 요인은 제조업 생산자물가를 단기적으로 2.18%, 0.21%, 0.74%, 0.48% 정도 높이는 영향을 미친 것으로 나타났다. 이는 2021년 12월의 전년동기 대비 제조업 물가 상승율 14.4%에 이들 4개 요인이 약 3.6%포인트(제조업 물가 상승의 약 25%)만큼 기여하였음을 의미한다. 생산자물가가 상승하게 되면 기업의 채산성이 낮아지고 더 나아가서는 수출물가에도 영향을 주어 글로벌 가격 경쟁력이 저하될 우려가 있다는 점에서 경계가 필요하다. 국제 유가 및 원자재 가격 상승에 대해서는 기업에서 판매 가격 전가율을 높일 수 있는 비가격 경쟁력을 확보하고 생산공정 혁신을 통해 가격 변동을 흡수할 수 있도록 대응할 필요가 있다. 공급망 교란 충격이 장기적으로 생산자물가에 미치는 영향이 커지는 분석 결과를 고려할 때, 물류비 지원을 통한 생산 비용 절감과 수급 안정화 방안을 마련하는 것도 필요하다. 더불어 각국의 통화·금융 정책에 대한 지속적인 모니터링을 통해 유동성 증가에 따른 인플레 위협에 선제적으로 대응해 나가야 할 것이다.
Studies of pre-colonial and colonial history in Korea have been and still are relevant to Koreans today, For a comprehensive understanding of pre-colonial and colonial history, Pusan is a good window through which the expansion of hegemonic domination in Korea can be seen in both pre-colonial and colonial history. This paper aims to analyze the Japanese expansion of hegemonic domination which occurred as Japanese settlers rapidly increased during the open-port period (1876-1910) in Pusan. Prior to the annexation, Pusan, as the first open port in Korea, reflected features of hegemonic domination on socio-cultural- economic dimensions of people’s lives. The socio- cultural-economic impacts in Pusan were accompanied by a rapid increase in Japanese immigration after the opening of Pusan in 1876. Despite the prolificacy of research in this field, the historiography in Korea has been divided and is moving along parallel lines. However, by the end of the twentieth century, some scholars had attempted to sublate the extremely bipolar narratives of either “exploitation” or “development,” “tradition” or “modernity” in Korean history. In order to pursue a more balanced approach, Gi-wook Shin and Michael Robinson’s edited volume, 『Colonial Modernity in Korea』, adopts some of this new perspective in the Korean academy and brings it into English scholarship, providing an important theoretical framework to understand colonial modernity in Korea. This paper is in line with this new trend. My research employs a general framework of Antonio Gramsci’s analysis of power and ‘hegemony’ in his Prison Notebooks. There was not necessarily any ‘forced’ separateness or apartheid; rather contact between the Koreans and Japanese was played out in asymmetrical relations of power. I will use the concept of ‘hegemony’ to explore how the Japanese settlers and Koreans negotiated and dominated the establishment of urban space in Pusan and how the structure of urban space was utilized. In fact, the process of Japanese expansion and exercise of power in Pusan was accomplished through a combination of ‘force’ and ‘consent’. In this paper, I attempt to firstly demonstrate the increase of Japanese immigration to Pusan and then analyze Japanese settler’s hegemonic domination in Pusan by examining modern space and social structure in Pusan during the open-port period.