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          기능성 위장관 질환 환자의 진료실에서의 영양 상담

          강성길,Kang, Sung Kil 대한소아소화기영양학회 2008 Pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology & nutrition Vol.11 No.suppl1

          In patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, dietary factors have an important effect on the development or worsening of gastrointestinal symptoms. Therefore, nutritional advice is often needed for the treatment of these patients. Although no firm conclusions can be drawn from current studies, the use of low-fat diets can be recommended in patients with functional dyspepsia. Constipation can be treated with a high-fiber diet. There are few studies in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea. The diet recommendations must be applied to each patient depending on symptoms.

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          말라카法(Lex Malacitana)에서 Renuntiatio

          강성길 한국서양고대역사문화학회 ( 구 한국서양고대사학회 ) 2000 서양고대사연구 Vol.8 No.-

          The two bronze tablets which contain the surviving portions of the charters of the Spanish towns Malaca and Salpensa were discovered near Malaga in 1851. The Lex Malacitana is of great importance to the constitutional historian in that it contains virtually in their entirety the provisions laid down for the conduct of the local elections and in that they are generally based on voting procedure in the Roman assemblies. The purpose of this paper is to interpret afresh chapters 56 and 57, and to attempt to reconstruct voting procedure-that is to say the renuntiatio - of these two chapters in the Malagan assembly. Mommsen interpreted that the two chapters refer to separate announcements. According to him there was a preliminary announcement of the vote individual curiae. In other words he supposed that the results of the voting in each curia were announced as they were reached, before the final announcement(renuntiatio) in an order determined by the lot. However, Rosenberg first objected to Mommsen's view and De Sanctis strengthened his arguments. Rosenberg and De Sanctis showed that the actual result of an election could well be affected by an order - that is an order determined by the lot-in which the results from the individual curiae were announced. Besides, according to Staveley, Mommsen's view conflicts with an account given by Varro(De Re Publica, Ⅲ, 1-17) of an aedilician election in the last century of the Republic. Therefore, the preliminary announcement of the vote of individual curiae would not only have been unnecessary but could well have been both misleading and embarrassing. The view that there was a single announcement in the Malagan assembly has been accepted by many scholars since 1960s. However, can we reexamine both the word ‘renuntiato’ employed in inexact sense in chapter 56, on one hand according to De Sanctis, and the word ‘pluresve’ employed in rather inexact sense in chapter 57, on the other hand according to Mommsen and De Sanctis? In order to reconsider these words, it is necessary to interpret afresh chapter 56 and 57. In the treating these two chapters, not only Mommsen and his supporters but also De Sanctis and most of his followers have started from the assumption that the clause ‘donec is numerus, ad quem creari opotebit, expletus sit’ should be interpreted as ‘until the number-that is to say two places in the magistracy-which it is necessary to elect is filled.’ According to c. 57, however, the calling of the curiae went on ‘donec tot magistratus sint quod h(ac) l(ege) creari opotebit,’ id est, ‘until two places in the magistracy to be elected in accordance to this law had been filled by candidates who had won an absolute majority of the curiae. Then the Malagan assembly was dismissed without announcement of the votes of remaining curiae. Therefore, if the clause ‘donec is numerus, ad quem creari oportebit, expletus sit’ should be interpreted as ‘until the number of places, namely, two places is filled,’ it would have been ‘donec is numerus, ad quem creari ex h(ac) l(ege) oportebit, expletus sit.’ But there isno the phrase ‘ex h(ac) l(ege)’ or ‘h(ac) l(ege)’ in the clause ‘donec is numerus, ad quem creari opotebit, expletus sit.’ Why is, then, the phrase ‘ex h(ac) l(ege)’ or ‘h(ac) l(ege)’ omitted in the clause? In order to answer this question, it is necessary to consider three stages through which the results of voting on the part of each of the individual curiae might have been announced in a different way or might not have been. This consideration may. I think, lead us not only to know the reason why the phrase ‘ex h(ac) l(ege)’ or ‘h(ac) l(ege)’ is omitted in the clause ‘donec is numerus, ad quem creai oportebit, expletus sit,’ but also to know the reason why, as soon as the presiding officer had declared two candidates with an absolute majority elected as the two magistrates who should be elected(creai) in accordance to this law(h(ac) l(ege) in c.57) in the Malagan assembly, he should, be dismiss the comitia at once in the process of the announcement of results out of thirty five curiae in an order determined by the lot. Because it would be impossible for the clause ‘donec is numerus, ad quem creai ex h(ac) l(ege)’ or ‘h(ac) l(ege) oportebit, expletus sit’ to cover these three stages in the announcement of the results of voting on the part of each of the individual curiae. Therefore I think that chapter 56, Ⅱ. 27-32(Is qui ea comitia~expletus sit) is the provision would be the principal of the renuntiatio that the presiding magistrate should observe in order to announce the results of individual voting units in an order decied by lot not only in the Malagan elective assembly, but also at least in elective tribal assemblies in the Roman Republic -if the provisions for the precedence of candidates in c. 56, Ⅱ. 33-42(maritum quive ... numerentur) is omitted. What are, then, omnium curiarum tabulae or the lists of all the curiae(relatis omnium curiarum tabuluis in c 57)? it seems to me more probable that if the name of each curia comes up by lot, the herald would name each of candidates in the order of the complete list of nominated candidates for office before the voting, and announce the size of his vote for that curia. After the lists of all the curiae had been reported, the presiding officer was to draw lots with the names of the curiae. When, as the name of each curia came up by lot, he was to order a custos or herald to announce(pronuntiare) those whom that curia had elected(fecerit), the herald would announce the number of votes which each of candidates in that curia had received in the order of the list of nominated candidates for office. And then for the first time applying chapter 56-that is the principal of the renuntiatio-to that curia, the presiding officer would announce those or him whom that curia had elected(fecerit), as elected, until the number which it is necessary to elect, was filled(in c. 56), and at the same time this would mean that those or he who the presiding officer announced as elected for that curia would obtain(confecerit) one curia in the results of voting in the assemble as a whole, until there were as many magistrates as it is necessary to elect in accordance to this law(in c. 57). Therefore, I suggest, the clause ‘factum creatumque renuntiatio’ in chapter 57 means that the presiding magistrate should announce practically simultaneously both the results of voting within each curia and the results of voting in the assembly as a whole. According to my view, I suggest that we can find a case or cases of more than two candidates(plures) achieving simultaneously their absolute majorities-that is to say the same number of curiae(‘totidem curias’)- with the announcement of the vote of one and the same curia, as table I is shown. If my fresh interpretation of chapter 56 and 57 is right, I hope, the reason why the word ‘pluresve’ should be used in the clause ‘si totidem curias duo pluresve habebunt’ of c. 57 can be explained well. In conclusion, as a curious feature of the renuntiatio of the votes by order of the lot in the Malagan comitia. I think that the drawing of lots would have been institutional devices for eliminating possibilities that ‘extra’ or ‘unnecessary’ votes which De Sanctis and Hall supposed should unnecessary be announced.

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