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雲岡 李康秊[1858~1908]은 군사 운용과 전술의 전문가인 무관으로서 민비 시해 사건과 단발령을 계기로 倡義 擧兵한 의병장이다. 그는 경상북도 문경 태생이지만 제천으로 柳麟錫[1842~1915]을 찾아가 그의 문인이 되는 동시에 유인석 의병 부대의 유격대장으로 활약하였다. 또 李恒老[1792~1868]의 『華西集』 간행에도 적극 관여하는 등 학문 연찬에도 힘을 썼으니, 그의 강력한 무장 항쟁은 위정척사론의 이념적 토대 위에서 이루어진 것이다. 이강년은 의병장으로서는 보기 드물게 다수의 詩文을 남기고 있고 그것들의 상당수는 그의 투쟁과 밀접한 관련이 있다. 「聞國變世禍, 漸至板蕩, 不勝憤激, 仍賦一律.」은 거병 즈음의 근심과 두려움, 육체적 고통과 투쟁의 의지가 진솔하게 토로된 작품이다. 「被擒時口號」는 적에게 체포되는 절망적 상황에서도 의연한 결기를 보여준다. 또 「囚在日憲兵所口號」는 헌병소에 구금되어 있으면서 쓴 시로, 구차히 살아남지 않을 것이며 죽어서도 항쟁하겠다는 결연한 의지를 보여준다. 「告訣八域同志」는 옥중에서 전국의 동지들에게 영결을 고하는 글로, 거병의 계기, 무장 항쟁 기간, 戰績, 체포당한 경위, 사형에 직면한 심정, 투쟁의 이념을 기술하고 있다. 이 글에서 이강년은 반역자들이 충신과 선량한 사람들을 무고하게 살해하는 상황에서 양심의 격동을 참을 수 없었던 것이 거병의 원인이라고 밝혔다. 그리고 13년간 2차례 기병하였고 전투 횟수는 30여회, 전적은 왜적 100여명을 죽인 것이라고 하였다. 이강년은 인륜이 사라진 상황에 대하여 심각한 위기의식을 가지고 있었고, 양심에 격동되어 거병하였으며, 존화양이의 의리를 위해 殉死한다는 자부심을 가지고 있었으며, 남은 동지들에게 綱常을 돈독히 하라고 당부하였다. 이것이 이강년이 지닌 위정척사 의식이다. 『雲岡遺稿』에는 15편의 檄文類가 전한다. 그의 격문은 선명한 위정척사의 이념을 기반으로 삼고 있다. 그것들은 군사와 무기, 군자금 조달을 독려하는 격문, 伊藤博文을 통렬히 꾸짖는 격문, 일제의 앞잡이로 온갖 간악한 짓을 일삼는 一進會를 준엄히 꾸짖은 효유문, 각국의 영사관에 일제의 침탈을 고발하고 조국 해방의 타당성을 알리는 통고문, 군대의 기율을 알려 경계하는 글이다. 그중에서 募兵을 목적으로 하는 것이 격문으로서 전형성 갖는다. Ungang(雲岡) Lee Kang-nyeon(李康秊)[1858~1908] was an expert in military operations and tactics as a military officer and he was a the righteous Armies general who raised an army in the cause of justice for Queen Min’s assassination and the ordinance prohibiting topknots. Although he was born in Mungyeong, Gyeongsangbuk-do, he went to Jecheon to visit Yoo In-seok (柳麟錫)[1842~1915] to become his literary man and also served as a captain of Yoo In-seok’s righteous army. He also worked hard at study including being actively involved in the publication of Lee Hang-ro(李恒老)[1792~1868]’s 『Hwaseojib(華西集)』, so Lee Kang-nyeon’s strong armed resistance was based on the ideological basis of Wijung Chuksa(Protect Righteousness and Expel wickedness, 衛正斥邪). Lee Kang-nyeon leaves a large number of poetry and prose as a rare case for the righteous Armies general, and many of them are closely related to his struggle. 「He heard the nation change and the world dizzy, so gradually became confused, and he did not stand the enragement and wrote a poem(聞國變世禍, 漸至板蕩, 不勝憤激, 仍賦一律.)」 is a work in which worries, fears, physical pain and the will of struggle are truly expressed around the time of raising an army. 「Poetry when he was arrested by an enemy(被擒時口號)」 shows a resolute impetuousness even in the desperate situation of being arrested by an enemy. In addition, 「Poetry while he was imprisoned in Japanese military police station(囚在日憲兵所口號)」 is a poem written while in a military police station, it shows his determined will to struggle even if he dies and not to survive wretchedly. 「Tell all over the country comrades before his death(告訣八域同志)」 is written in the prison to bid his last farewell to comrades from all over the country, it describes the cause of raising an army, the period of armed struggle, the record of struggle, the arrested situation, the feeling faced by the death penalty, and the ideology of struggle. In this article, he said that the cause of raising an army was that he could not stand the turbulence of conscience at a time when traitors were killing faithful and good people for no reason. He also said that he raised an army twice in 13 years, fought about 30 times, and killed more than 100 Japanese invaders. Lee Kang-nyeon had a serious sense of crisis about the situation in which humanity had disappeared, and he raised an army by being turbulent of conscience. Also, he was proud of dying for his country for the loyalty of Johnhwa Yangi(Revere China and expel the foreigners, 尊華攘夷) and he asked the remaining comrades to strengthen moral principles. This is the his consciousness of Wijung Chuksa(Protect Righteousness and Expel wickedness, 衛正斥邪). In 『Ungang-yugo(雲岡遺稿)』, 15 manifestos are presented. His manifestos are based on clear ideology of Wijung Chuksa(Protect Righteousness and Expel wickedness, 衛正斥邪). They are the manifestos of encouraging military, weapons and military funds, of scolding Ito Hirobumi(伊藤博文) severely, the persuasion of criticizing sharply Iljinhoe(一進會) which had done all kinds of atrocities as informer of Japan, the notification of accusing Japanese invasion and informing the validity of liberation to consular offices of each country, and the article of informing the discipline of the army. Among them, for the purpose of recruiting the army has typicality as a manifesto.
본 연구의 목적은 칼슘염을 함유한 레미콘 슬러지를 이용하여 불소함유폐수를 물에 난용성인 CaF₂ 화합물 형태로 침전시켜 처리하는데 있어 pH, 레미콘슬러지 주입량, Seed물질 주입량, 교반속도, 교반시간의 최적 조건을 도출하고자 하는데 있다. 실험결과 레미콘 슬러지를 이용한 대상폐수의 CaF₂ 침전 반응에서 함수율 및 불소의 제거효율 등을 고려할 경우 최적의 pH 6, 레미콘 슬러지 주입량은 10 g/L, Seed 물질 주입량은 2 g/L, 교반속도은 100 rpm, 교반시간은 60 min으로 관찰되었다. 이 때 Seed 물질의 주입은 불소제거효율에는 영향이 없는 것으로 나타났지만 침전물의 형성이 되는 반응을 촉진시키고 플럭형성을 원활하게 하여 고액 분리가 잘 되어 함수율이 낮아지는 결과가 나타났다. The purpose of this study was performed to investigate the optimum conditions of pH, concrete sludge, seed dosage, mixing intensity, operation time in treating fluoride-containing wastewater as CaF₂ using the ready-mixed concrete sludge. Considering fluoride removal, water content, that pH 6, concrete sludge dosage of 10 g/L, Seed dosage (CaF₂) of 2 g/L, mixing intensity of 100 rpm and operation time of 60 min were found to be optimum. Correspondingly, removal of fluoride and water content was about 85% and 64%, respectively. Increase in amount of seed dosage did not affect fluoride removal efficiency. but the result that the water content is decreased was shown up in occuring the solid-liquid separation well.
본 연구에서는 DEPHANOX공정을 변형한 두 개의 질산화 반응조를 둔 M-DEPHANOX 공정과 기존 변형된 질산화 반응조를 RBC로 대체한 형태로 단일 질산화 반응조로 운전된 M-DEPHANOX 공정을 운전하였다. 그리고 두 공정의 제거율을 비교하기 위하여 질소, 인 및 유기물 제거율과 질산화 반응조의 유기물 부하에 따른 $NH_3$-N 제거율을 조사하였다. 연구결과 $NH_3$-N 제거율은 M-DEPHANOX공정이 91.8%, M-eBNR 공정은 96.9%로서 두 공정 모두 높게 나타났다. TCOD와 SCOD 제거율은 M-DEPHANOX공정은 84.1와 78.2%, M-eBNR공정은 83.4%와 75.6%이었다. 또한 유기물이 $NH_3$-N 제거율에 미치는 영향은 M-eBNR 공정의 질산화 반응조에서는 1차 침전조에서 거의 나타나지 않았다. M-eBNR 공정의 $NH_3$-N 제거율은 도시하수의 유입성상이 달라지더라도 안정적으로 유지되었다. The objective of this study was to investigate difference in nitrogen, organic, phosphorus and $NH_3$-N removal efficiency according to organic loading, comparing M-DEPHANOX process which has two nitrification reactor with M-eBNR process which has one nitrification reactor. As a result of this study, $NH_3$-N removal efficiency of M-DEPHANOX and M-eBNR resulted in average level of 91.8%, 96.9%, respectively. M-DEPHANOX and M-eBNR processes showed high removal efficiency in view of $NH_3$-N removal efficiency. Comparing organic removal efficiency by M-DEPHANOX and M-eBNR processes, the average removal efficiency in terms of TCOD, SCOD was 84.1%, 78.2% and 83.4%, 75.6%. Also, the results that observed about $NH_3$-N removal efficiency regarding organic loading revealed that nitrification reactor of RBC type are little influenced by flowing organic without precipitating at settling tank. Therefore, although inflow characteristics of municipal wastewater changes, M-eBNR process appeared to remove $NH_3$-N reliably.
This study was performed to improve nitrification using Nitrification tank that was applied RBC in M-Dephanox. The existing M-Dephanox process was using fluent media likes EPS media, Linphor media to grow nitric acid bacteria in Nitrification tank. But such fluent media brings deterioration of nitrification efficiency forming Dead zone, when activated sludge adsorbed organic matter is flowing into Nitrification tank. To solve this problem, we apply RBC to Nitrification tank and extract activated sludge by friction resulting from the rotation. So we carry out smooth nitrification. The result of an experiment, removal efficiency of TCOD More than 93% was showed in influent TCOD loading rate 1.0~2.5 kg/m3·day range. In addition, NH4+-N removal efficiency of Nitrification tank, according to the organic load introduced in Nitrification tank was showed approximately 89% of the NH4+-N removal efficiency when the load range of organic matter even increased to 0.04~0.14 kg/m3·day. The case of phosphorus, T-P , PO43--P was the more influent loading rate is rising, the more removal efficiency is rising. Therefore, the RBC applied process in Existing M-Dephanox process is not only bring a High nitrification efficiency but also perform the stabler nitrification efficiency then inflowing organic matter.
This work was aimed to evaluate the Modified Dephanox process, in which rotating blo-contactor (RBC) is incorporated into the process as an independent nitrification reactor, in treating domestic and industrial wastewater. Pilot-scale experimental results showed that the removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), total phosphorus (T-P) and total nitrogen (T-N) in treating domestic wastewater were higher than those in treating industrial wastewater. The removals of TCOD, SCOD, T-P and T-N in treating domestic wastewater were 90, 82. 95 and 80 %, whereas those in treating industrial wastewater were 75, 65, 75 and 65 %, respectively, The lower efficiencies of TCOD, SCOD, T-P and T-P of industrial wastewater would be attributed to toxic materials, such as heavy metals, which could be contained in industrial wastewater. Consequently, the M-Dephanox system proposed in this study contributed to the high and stable removal efficiency of TCOD, SCOD, T-P and T-N of domestic wastewater. However, the Modified Dephanox system was significantly vulnerable to toxic materials even though the system was designed to minimize the toxic effects (specifically to enhance nitrification) by introducing the RBC reactor.
In this study, it used the candle filter in order to remove the Si particle of CMP wastewater which is generally produced from semiconductor industry. The chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater is the super pure water as the water come out of the semiconductor process with including the partial silica particle and occupies 40% of the effluent generated in the process of manufacturing semiconductor. If this process is formed in the media surface after the predetermined time flows, the quality of water of the treated water is improved. By using this concept, the treatment was possible which is the partial silica in the shortest possible time. The pre-coating used the CMP and Back grind wastewater and it measured and compared the Si particle removal ratio with the flow rate and turbidity. The time to use Back grind was the pore size blocked within the time to be faster than the CMP wastewater and the flow rate of the effluent which is treated was fast. So Back grind wastewater is suitable Pre-coating process. The Pre-coating process was finished and the CMP wastewater was filtered later. There was no difference from two media and the silica concentration of the effluent flowed out investigated the removal ratio exceeded 90% altogether.
This research tried to observe according to the change of the hydraulic retention time whether the Modified DEPHANOX process of applying the rotating biological contactor to the industrial wastewater through the process operating of the pilot scale maintained the nitrogen and organic compound the stable process efficiency considering in the industrial wastewater. In operating the Modified DEPHANOX process with the rotating biological contactor as the pilot-scale at the hydraulic retention time of 12 hrs, the nitrogen removal efficiency was 75%, the organic compound removal efficiency was 83%, and the phosphorous removal efficiency was 73% respectively. Despite the advantages of using Modified DEPHANOX with rotating biological contactor, this process was found to be ineffective when the sample industrial wastewater had a high concentration of toxic substance and oil. Therefore, in order to obtain stable nitrogen removal efficiency in these settings, further future studies may be necessary.