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Outdoor air pollution with particulate matter has become more severe in Korea. Ambient particle concentration affects the indoor environment through various routes through building envelopes. In this study, we investigated particle exposure in residential buildings. Indoor and outdoor particle sources determined the indoor concentrations and particle exposure. This paper measured indoor particles and CO2 concentrations in two different apartment buildings and conducted the survey for 24 hours. The I/O ratio of the occupant awake period was higher than the asleep period. The I/O ratio in the awake period is 0.93-3.65, while the I/O ratio in the asleep period is 0.31-0.76.Indoor peak events such as cooking or cleaning temporarily increase the I/O ratio and emit the indoor particle sources. Decay rate constant is 0.49-6.84 (1/h) in the indoor peak events during the operation of the exhaust hood and natural ventilation. The size range of 0.3-0.5 μm size is over half for the proportions of emitted particles (55.6%). Daily exposure is divided into indoor sources (45.2%) and outdoor sources (54.8%). We found the differences for the proportion of particle exposure. The ratio of daily exposure in particles for 0.3-0.5 μm size is 43.1 (indoor)/ 56.9 (outdoor) %. However, indoor sources are higher than outdoor sources for the ratio of daily exposure in particles for the 0.5-10.0 μm size.
Objectives: The positive effects of nap on cognitive function and memory have been researched intensively among children and adults. However, the relationship between afternoon nap and executive function among sleep deprived late adolescents has not been studied as much. Methods: Ten sleep deprived, otherwise healthy Korean high school students were recruited, and asked to fill out Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. They were put to nap for 5 min on three days during the first week, then for 10, 20, and 30 min in the same protocol during the consecutive weeks. After a 1-h class, both the students themselves and their corresponding teachers evaluated the participation level of the participants. They were then divided into two groups, and were instructed to play iPad game ‘Free Flow’. One group took a nap while the other group was prohibited from taking a nap. Both groups were instructed to play the game again. This was repeated once every afternoon for three days. Results: The experiment showed that 20-min nap was superior in subjective evaluations to the other nap duration, and the mean game score differences before and after were significantly higher in the nap taking group after the 20-min nap when analyzed using non-parametric statistical method (p-value 0.04). Conclusions: Therefore, 20-min nap is likely to boost planning domain of executive function on sleep deprived late adolescents.
The cooking-generated particles are major indoor sources of air pollution. Recently, the performance of the range hood is focused on particle removal performance. Range hood with an auxiliary air supply system can improve the fine and ultrafine particles removal efficiency by making a supply air during cooking activities. The particles were measured in the experimental building by varying ventilation types. Only operating range hood during the cooking activities was not enough to reduce the cooking-generated particles. Despite operating range hood systems, fine and ultrafine particle concentrations were maintained when cooking was finished. The range hood with a make-up air supply system can reduce the indoor particle concentration below background conditions when those systems were operated after cooking. In this study, the assessment of cooking-generated particle removal efficiency of the range hood with an auxiliary air supply system was conducted. The removal efficiency of ultrafine particles showed trends similar to the removal efficiency of fine particles.
기업은 제품의 품질 개선을 통해 고객 만족도를 증진 시킬 수 있는 고객 만족 경영 전략을 도입하였다. 그 러나 제품의 품질만으로는 경쟁 우위를 확보할 수 없 으며 기업 자체의 능동적인 노력이 필요하게 되었다. 이는 고객이 궁극적으로 추구하는 가치를 고려해야 한다는 것을 의미한다. 한편, 와인은 세분화된 고객 가치를 포함하며 기존의 와인 고객 가치에 대한 선행 연구들은 주로 설문조사를 통해 고객 가치를 파악하 였다. 그러나 설문조사 기반의 연구는 고객의 구체적 인 경험적 요인을 반영하기 어려운 한계가 있다. 따 라서 본 연구에서는 기존 연구의 한계점을 보완하기 위해, 고객의 구체적인 소비 경험 및 평가가 담긴 와 인 리뷰 데이터를 활용하여 고객 가치의 세부 요인을 탐색하고자 한다. 이를 위해 와인 커뮤니티인 Vivino 에서 소비자가 작성한 리뷰와 평점을 수집하고 토픽 모델링을 활용하여 리뷰 내에 고객 가치에 대한 요인 을 도출한다. 그리고 고객 만족도에 영향을 미치는 고객 가치 요인을 파악한다. 따라서 본 연구는 리뷰 를 활용하여 기존 설문조사에서 파악할 수 없었던 세 분화된 고객 가치를 파악할 수 있는 새로운 방법론을 제안했다는 점에서 의의가 있다.
In order to reduce resistance torque and energy loss, minimizing friction between race surface and rolling elements of a bearing is necessary. Recently, to reduce friction in bearing element, solid lubricant coating for the bearing raceway surface has been receiving much attention. Considering the operating conditions of real bearings, verifying the effect of solid lubricant coatings under extreme conditions of high load that is more than 1 GPa is necessary. In this study, we evaluated the friction and wear characteristics of SUJ2 bearing steels deposited by carbon-based coatings (Si-DLC, ta-C), MoS2 and graphite. In case of MoS2 and graphite coatings, different surface treatments were applied to the coatings to verify the effect of surface treatment. A pin-on-disc type tribotester was used to evaluate the tribological characteristics of the coatings. It was possible to quantitatively estimate the friction and wear characteristics of solid lubricant under dry and lubrication conditions. The carbonbased coatings improved the friction and wear properties of SUJ2 bearing steels under the high load condition, but MoS2 and graphite coatings were not suitable for high load conditions due to its low hardness. Different friction and wear behaviors were found for different substrate surface treatment method. Also, it was confirmed that solid lubricant coatings had a more positive effect than just applying the lubricant for improving the tribological characteristics.
한문과가 독립 교과로 편제되고 오랜 시간동안 많은 분들이 발전을 위해 노력해왔다. 그러나 아직도 한문과는 자기 위치를 찾지 못하고, 존재의 타당성을 도구적 성격에 기대고 있다. 이것은 한문을 독립된 학문적 탐구와 접근의 대상으로 보지 못한 결과이다. 7차교육과정에서는 이런 도구적 성격과 근대 이전의 한문 교육이 지니고 있었던 도덕ㆍ윤리 교육적 성격을 지나치게 강조하여 한문은 변화에 부정적이고, 훈계나 하며, 구습을 답습하는 권위주의적 교과라는 인상을 심어주게 될 우려가 있다. 한문과는 英文, 中文 등과 같이 文이라는 질을 지니는 학문을 다루는 교과이다. 다만 한문은 현재 통용되는 언어체계가 아니라 先奉 時代의 구어에 기초하여 형성된 일종의 이상적 문장언어라는 특징을 지닌다. 다른 어문교과와는 달리 한문과는 이상적인 문장언어를 학습한다는 특징을 지니게 된다. 다른 어문교과에서는 '언어 기능'이라는 영역을 설정하고 거기에 듣기, 말하기, 읽기, 쓰기 등 언어의 4기능을 배치하였다. 한문과의 경우 언어의 네 가지 기능 가운데 듣기, 말하기, 쓰기의 기능은 이미 상실하였다. 결국 한문의 언어적 기능은 '읽기'에 한정된다. 한문과 읽기의 대상이 되는 글의 유형을 크게 文, 史, 哲로 분류하지만, 그 중에서 文의 주도적 위치를 의심하는 사람은 없을 것이다. 문장언어라는 특질에서 본다면 한문의 교육에서 언어 예술인 문학이 차지하는 비중은 굳이 설명할 필요가 없을 것이다. 그러나 차지하는 비중에 비해 연구와 실천은 매우 미약한 형편이다. 그나마 찾아볼 수 있는 것도 현장에서 이루어진 '한시의 지도 방법' 정도에 지나지 않는다. 한문 교육이 읽기 교육이라면 문학은 그 한 영역이 된다. 그러므로 일반적인 읽기 평가의 유형을 지니면서도 특화된 내용을 지니게 된다. 그러나 우리는 아직 합의된 교과 내용 영역의 체계를 갖고 있지 않다. 뿐만 아니라, 문학작품 자체에 대한 연구의 풍요에도 불구하고 그것이 어떻게 교육될 수 있는가에 대한 연구의 빈곤에 시달리고 있다. 하루빨리 한문 교육 내용 영역과 그에 대한 구체적 교육 내용, 평가체계가 갖추어지기를 기대해 본다. The subject of Hanmoon has made an effort to promote itself for a long time since it was set up as an independent subject of curricula. However, the Subject of Hanmoon has not settled down yet on its own location and it is still dependent upon a sort of secondary role for its value in a school curriculum. Thats why Hanmoon is not considered as a subject of learning. Since in the 7th National Currimulum such stereotyped conceptions as a instrumental characteristic, moral and ethical characteristic which stems from the old ages are too much exaggerated, it is possibly said that Hanmoon is negative to change, too disciplinary, too obedient to old manners, and too authoritative. The Subject of Hanmoon is same as English and Chinese in terms of subject of learning which has literature of a qualification. Hanmoon is not a current language system but a kind of an ideal sentential language derived from spoken language at the age of Pre-Qin. Unlike the other linguistic subjects, the Subject of Hanmoon has a characteristic to learn an ideal sentential language. The other linguistic subjects set a linguistic function that holds listening, speaking, reading, and writing. the Subject of Hanmoon has already lost the function of listening, speaking, and writing. As a result, the function of Hanmoon is restricted to reading only. Literature, history, and philosophy are involved as a readable field of the Subject of Hanmoon but among them literature is the major field rather than any other area. In terms of sentential language the portion of literature, an art of language, cannot be overestimated too much. However, comparing the value with the interest of it, we find that studying and teaching it are quite weak and rare actually. Even small effort for the class is limited to temporary lesson plans and teaching methods. Suppose teaching Hanmoon is reading it mainly, literature would be a part of it. Therefore it has not only a feature of reading evaluation but also special contents. But we dont have any organized system as a field of subject yet. Besides, we suffer from shortage of study in order to find out how to teach it, we are rich in studying literature itself though. The educational field and practical contents for Hanmoon are expected to be established firmly as soon as possible.
This research intends to provide the basic data for the dance majoring student’s efficient and positive use of their training that is on increase. For this purpose, it examined the professor types and emotion expression of dance and also studied their influence on the dance achievement. The subject of this study was the members who were the university student majoring dance. Convenience sampling, which is a non-probability sampling, was used. Among a total of 350 questionnaires distributed, 323 copies were collected back. And the questionnaires that were insincerely replied, double-replied or judged useless for the study were excluded and a total of 312 questionnaires were analyzed. The research results were as follows: First, the result of examining the influence of the professor types on the dance achievement were partly influenced. Second, the result of examining the influence of the emotion expression of dance on the dance achievement were partly influenced. Third, the result of examining the influence of the professor types on the emotion expression of dance were partly influenced. Fourth, the emotion expression of dance mediated the relationship between professor types and dance achievement.