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Biochemical polymorphic loci of blood protein and enzymes, albumin(Al), trans ferrin(Tf), hemoglobin(Hb), amylase-1(Am-1), carbonic anhydrase(CA) and ceruloplasmin(Cp), as genetic markers for three imported beef cattle breeds (131 Angus, 130 Hereford and 56 Charolais) in Korea were analyzed by using starch gel electrophoresis. The genotype distributions and gene frequencies from the phenotypes were estimated at these loci for each breed. At the A1 locus, gene frequencies of Al^A and Al^B were 1.00 and 0.00 for Angus, 0.99 and 0.11 for Hereford and 0.96 and 0.04 for Charolais, respectively. Gene frequencies of Tf^A, Tf^D1 , Tf^D2 and Tf^E in Tf^E locus were 0.485, 0.111, 0.216 and 0.278 for Angus, 0.422, 0.355, 0.215 and 0.008 for Hereford and 0.232, 0.527, 0.233 and 0.018 for Charolais, respectively. Gene frequencies of Hb^A and Hb^B in Hb locus were estimated to be 1.00 and 0.00 for Angus and Hereford, and 0.837 and 0.163 for Charolais, respectively. Gene frequencies of Am^A, Am^B and Am^C in Am locus were estimated to be 0.035, 0.328 and 0.637 in Angus, 0.070, 0.440 and 0.490 in Hereford and 0.540, 0.491 and 0.455 in Charolais, respectively. In CA locus, the frequencies of gene CAF and CAS were found to be 0.103 and 0.897 for Angus, 0.165 and 0.835 for Hereford and 0.577 and 0.423 for Charolais, respectively. Gene frequencies of Cp^F and Cp^S in Cp locus were 0.637 and 0.363 in Angus, 0.640 and 0.160 in Hereford and 0.938 and 0.062 in Charolais, respectively. In comparing the gene frequencies of each locus among three breeds, significant differencies in the gene frequencies between Angus and Charolais were found in all loci examined. Also, significant differencies in the gene frequencies of the Tf, Am, CA and Cp loci except for Al and Hb loci were recognized between Angus and Hereford and between Hereford and Charolais, respectively. Consequently, it was found that there were marked differences in the genetic constitution between beef cattle breeds.
By using gene frequency data on the six biochemical polymorphic loci(Hb, Al, Tf, Am, CA and Cp) of blood protein and enzymes of three imported beef cattle breeds(Angus, Hereford and Charolais) raised in Korea, the genetic variability within breeds was quantified by the expected average heterozygosity, effective number of alleles and gene homogeneity index. The phylogenetic relationships among three breeds were estimated by the genetic distance. In addition, the efficacy of the genetic marker in solving problems of questionable parentage and in identifying individuals was investigated. From comparision of genetic variability between breeds, it was observed that Charolais showed somewhat higher than the other two breeds. The genetic variability of Angus was similar to that of Hereford. In comparision of genetic identity and standard genetic distance among three breeds, the most close relationship was observed between Angus and Hereford and the lowest genetic similarity was recognized between Angus and Charolais. The combined probability of excluding wrong parentage by the six blood marker loci in the three breeds was estimated to be 61-68%. The probability of distinguishing individuals over all the 6 loci was estimated to be 97.6-98.4%. Accordingly, it was proved that parentage control could be carried out practically by using the six polymorphic loci and these loci were considerably useful as genetic markers for application to the pedigree registry of beef cattle breeds.
Milk protein polymorphisms of as,-casein (αS₁-CN), β-casein (β-CN), κ-casein (κ-CN) and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) loci as genetic markers for three imported beef cattle breeds (86 Angus, 92 Hereford and 32 Charolais) in Korea were analyzed by electrophoresis. On the basis of the marker genotype and gene frequencies at these polymorphic loci, the genetic structure of each breed population was analyzed, and the genetic variability within population was quantified, then the genetic relationships among breeds were determined. As for the marker gene and genotypes of each milk protein polymorphic locus, three genotypes, BB, BC and CC, controlled by two alleles (αS₁-CN^B and αS₁-CN^C) at αS₁-CN locus, tcn genotypes, A¹A¹, A¹A², A²A², A¹B, A²B, BB, A¹C, A²C. BC and CC, controlled by four alleles (β-CN^(A1), β-CN^(A2), β-CN^B and β-CN^C at β-CN locus, three genotypes. AA, AB and BB, controlled by two alleles (κ-CN^A and κ-CN^B) at κ-CN locus and three genotypes. AA, AB and BB. controlled by two alleles (β-LG^A and β-LG^B) at β-LG locus were identified among breeds. For the αS₁-CN locus the BB was the most common type (over 80%) in all three breeds. In the β-CN locus the prevalent genotypes were A²A²(65.8%) for Angus, A¹A²(35.6%) and A¹A¹(32.2%) for Hereford and A²A²(19. 3%), A¹B(19.3%), A²B(16.1%) and A²C(12.9%) for Charolais. At the κ-CN locus the highest frequency of the AA genotype(61.7 and 78.0% resp.) was observed in Angus and Hereford, whereas the BB genotype was extremely low. However, in Charolais the AB(38.7%) and BB(38.7%) genotypes were much more frequent than the AA genotype(22.6%). The most frequent genotypes at the β-LG locus were BB(63.9%) in Angus, AB(38.3%) and BB(35.1%) in Hereford and AA(50.0%) in Charolais. The most common casein(αS₁-, β- and κ-CN) genotype combinations(haplotype) in Angus, Hereford and Charolais were BB A²A² AA(33.0%), BB A¹A² AA (29.1%) and BB BA¹ AA(16.1%), respectively. In all breeds the frequency of the αS₁-CN^B gene ranging from 0.891 to 0.967 was overwhelmingly higher than that of the αS₁-CN^C gene. The highest gene frequency of β-CN locus was β-CN^(A2)(0.766) in Angus, β-CN^(A1)(0.511) in Hereford and β-CN^(A2)(0.371) and β-CN^B(0.306) in Charolais. Of the two genes in κ-CN locus the κ-CN^A gene(0.759 and 0.879 resp.) dominated in Angus and Hereford, while the κ-CN^B gene(0.581) was the most common in Charolais. In the β-LG locus the β-LG^B (0.797) and β-LG^A(0.641) genes were predominant in Angus and Charolais, respectively, whereas Hereford had an approximately equal distribution of β-LG^A(0.475) and β-LG^B(0.543). Significant differences between breeds were found at the gene frequencies of the β-CN, κ-CN and β-LG loci except for αS₁-CN locus. From the comparison of the data by measuring the average heterozygosity, effective numbers of alleles and gene homogeneity, the genetic variability within breed population was greatest for the Charolais, followed by the Hereford and Angus. In comparison of genetic identity, genetic distance and dendrogram calculated from the marker gene frequencies of milk protein polymorphic loci, the most close relationship was obtained between the Angus and Hereford and the lowest genetic similarity was obtained between the Angus and Charolais. And the Korean native cattle had close relationship with the Angus.
Biochemical polymorphisms of five leucocytic enzymes, phosphoglucomutase(PGM), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), phosphohexose isomerase(PHI), mannose-6-phosphate isomerase(MPI) and glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase(GOT) were analyzed by starch gel electrophoresis and their phenotype, genotype and gene frequencies were estimated in order to analyze the genetic structure of Che Ju native horses. In the PGM locus, three different phenotypes FF, FS and SS were identified and assumed to be controlled by two autosomal alleles designated PGM^F and PGM^S. The genotype frequencies were 63.49% for SS, 25.40% for FS and 11.11% for FF. Gene frequencies of PGM^S and PGM^F were 0.7619 and 0.2381, respectively. In the PGD locus. three different phenotypes FF, FS and SS were recognized and assumed to be controlled by two autosomal codominant alleles designated PGD^F and PGD^S. The observed distributions of phenotype were 55.00% for SS, 37.00% for FS and 7.50% for FF. Gene frequencies of PGD^F and PGD^S were 0.2625 and 0.7375, respectively. In the PHI^F locus, two different phenotypes FI and II were observed and assumed to be controlled by two autosomal codominant alleles designated PHI^F and PHI^I, whereas the FF type was not recognized. The frequecies of PHI genotypes II and FI were found to be 76.62% and 23.38%, respectively and gene frequencies of PHI^F and PHI^I were 0.1169 and 0.8831, respectively. In the MPI locus, three different phenotypes AA, AB and BB were identified, which considered to be controlled by two codominant alleles MPI^A and MPI^B at a single autosomal locus. The distributions of phenotype BB, AB and AA were 67.92%, 20.75% and 11.32%, respectively and gene frequencies of MPI^B and MPI^A were 0.7830 and 0.2170, respectively. In the GOT locus, any individual variation was not found, therefore, this locus was defined to be monomorphic.
In these studies, the phenotypes and gene frequencies of red cell enzymes such as esterase. 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase and phosphohexose isomerase were analyzed by starch gel electrophoresis from the data obtained for the identification of the genetic characteristics in Korean pheasants and their protection and prolilferation. In the esterase locus, two different phenotypes AB and BB were recognized. The observed distributions of phenotypes were 59 and 244 for AB and BB types. The gene frequencies of ES^A and ES^B were 0.0974 and 0.9026, respectively-. In the phosphogluconate dehydrogenase locus, Four different phenotypes were recognized and assumed to be controlled by three alleles designated PGD^F, PGD^S and PGD^O. The observed distributions of phenotypes were 29, 24, l and 219 for FF, FS, SS and OO types, respectively. The gene frequencies of PGD^F, PGD^S and PGD^O were O.L502, 0.0476 and 0.9022, respectively. In the phosphoglucomutase locus, four different phenotypes FF, FS, SS and 00 types were recognized and assumed to be controlled by three alleles. The observed distributions of phenotypes were 39, 6, 1 and 229 for FF, FS, SS and 00 types, respectively. The gene frequencies of PGM^F, PGM^S and PGM^O were 0.1527, 0.0145 and 0.8327. respectively. In the phosphohexose isomerase locus, genetic variants were not observed.