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The provision of primary education remains a challenge in many developing countries. In the 1990s, Guatemala and Bangladesh took an innovative approach to improve educational access―i.e., collaborations with local NGOs. Building on the know-how of NGOs, both governments contracted local NGOs to support the primary education system in the country. The collaborations with local NGOs were indeed successful in increasing educational access in both countries. However, government-NGO relationships in these two countries changed over time. NGOs in Guatemala gradually became an extension of the government, whereas, in Bangladesh, NGOs grew into partners of the government in educational service provision. This study aims to identify the factors affecting the dynamics of government-NGO relationships. The cases of Programa Nacional de Autogestión para el Desarrollo Educativo (PRONADE) and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) schools, two of the most successful educational models for increasing educational access to children in rural communities, are examined. For the analysis, the paper proposes a framework, inspired by Batley and Rose’s work, that examines the influences of institutional factors, the nature of organizations, and the strategies of actors. The study contributes to the current understanding of government-NGO relationships by adding narratives on why and how these relationships evolve. The study also offers insights on forging partnerships in the development sector.
Attempts have been made to develop a mathematical model for understanding of the false-twist draw texturing process in the steady state conditions. Based on the mass and twist balance conditions, a theoretical prediction has been made for a yarn diameter profile and twist distribution along the threadline for the steady operating conditions of false-twist draw texturing. Local yarn diameter, yarn translational velocity and twist in the threadline were theoretically calculated from the steady state model of the system.
The inner-loop flight control law is designed to satisfy the flying quality requirements, which include the change of XCG (longitudinal Center of Gravity) position due to fuel consumption, payload drop and/or failure occurrence in major subsystems such as the fuel system while operating in the overall flight envelope. Therefore, to make the aircraft have wide XCG travel in flight operation, the flying qualities and maneuvering performance can be improved by designing the flying quality parameters using additional information such as the weight and XCG position to the inner-loop control law. However, this design approach can seriously deteriorate the stability of the aircraft in the event of fuel mismanagement or a sensor failure for the XCG. An additional design technique should be considered to ensure the flight safety in response to various abnormal situations. This paper proposes a reconfiguration control technique based on the Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) control to guarantee flight safety in case of XCG sensor failure and information uncertainties that the aircraft has wide XCG travel in flight operation. The performances of the proposed control method are evaluated by the frequency-domain linear analysis and time-domain numerical simulations using the advanced trainer model. The evaluation result confirms that the proposed control method satisfies the level of required flying qualities and ensures flight safety in the event of sensor failure for the XCG measurement.
In order to investigate the effects of drafting parameters and roving specifications on the drafting forces in break draft zone of the roller drafting system, drafting forces were measured. It was known that, by the discussion of the experimental results, the maximum values of drafting forces were occurred at a certain draft ratio, but these values were increased and shifted to the higher draft ratio as the twists of roving were increased. The draft ratios at maximum drafting forces may be considered to be determined by break draft ratio.
The laboratory data for local scour depth at vertical-wall abutment are presented. These include the data to demonstrate the effects on scour depth of abutment nose shape, flow depth, and flume slope. Most cases of abutment nose shapes lie between the limiting cases, and it is demonstrated that, in such situations, scour depth is proportional to the flow depth, flume slope. In this paper, the scour depths according to the abutment nose types constructed in the flume channel are experimental studies on the shapes. The local scour at piers with several pier shapes, that are retcangular, sharp, chamferred rectangular, semi-oblong nose shapes, is analyzed based on the experimental studios. The experiments were conducted varing the flow depth, the channel bed slope and four abutment types based on the live-bed scour conditions. The experiments results show that the scour depth varies not only with abutment nose. Cut also with the flow depth and the flume slope. The comparable figures shows that the maximum loacal scour depth differentiate of each abutment nose shape under the flow depth and channe1 slope.